Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Algeria on Mar. 19–23, 1962, although the USSR had accorded de facto recognition to the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic in October 1960. Several agreements were reached between the two countries, including a trade agreement (Nov. 4, 1963), a payments agreement (Nov. 4,1963), an agreement on cultural cooperation (Dec. 10, 1963), an agreement on economic and technical cooperation extending long-term credit to Algeria on favorable terms (Dec. 27, 1963), and an air transportation agreement (June 1, 1964).
On July 3,1964, three agreements were concluded between the USSR and Algeria. In the first the USSR pledged economic assistance, in the form of long-term credit on preferential terms, to Algeria for the construction of a metallurgical works at el-Hajar. In the second agreement the USSR promised to organize and equip, as a gift to the Algerian people, an institute and technical school for the petroleum and gas industry, with each institution having facilities for 1,000 students. The third agreement, a protocol to the agreement of Dec. 27, 1963, provided for Soviet assistance in organizing a textiles technicum (for an enrollment of 500 students), a center for training industrial workers (300 students), and a center for training agricultural workers (200 students). Two protocols were signed on June 18, 1965: one provided for economic and technical cooperation in developing certain branches of Algerian industry, and the other ensured cooperation in developing certain areas of the Algerian economy and culture.
In a communiqué of Dec. 18, 1965, the USSR and Algeria noted their successful cooperation ¡n many areas and the identity or closeness of their views on major international problems.
An agreement concerning certain questions of economic cooperation and trade relations (a protocol to negotiations on Aug. 4, 1966) provided for Soviet assistance to Algeria in the construction of a factory for dressing lead and zinc, a thermoelectric power plant, and a distillery; the USSR also pledged to equip training centers for workers in the metallurgical and mining industries and to help locate and exploit petroleum and natural gas deposits.
Other agreements concluded between the USSR and Algeria include an agreement to establish a permanent intergovernmental commission on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation (Mar. 7, 1969), an agreement to establish equivalency in diplomas and academic degrees (protocol of May 12,1969), an agreement on radio and television broadcasting (Oct. 20,1969), and an agreement on scientific and technical cooperation (Oct. 24, 1969).
On Dec. 15, 1970, the two governments signed an agreement whereby Soviet specialists would be sent to work in Algeria. An agreement concluded on Nov. 15,1971, provided for Soviet assistance, in the form of long-term credit on favorable terms, in the construction of the second stage of the metallurgical works at el-Hajar, ensuring a production capacity of 1.8–2 million tons of steel annually. A protocol signed on the same day concerning economic and technical cooperation pledged Soviet assistance in establishing a mining and metallurgical institute in the city of An-naba. A trade agreement between the two countries was signed on Feb. 18,1972.
In a declaration issued on Oct. 8,1971, both the Soviet and Algerian governments agreed to establish working relations on the party level, and the USSR expressed its readiness to broaden economic and technical cooperation. A maritime shipping agreement was signed on Apr. 18, 1973. A communiqué of Oct. 16, 1973, stated that the two countries had discussed issues relating to the strengthening of friendship and cooperation.
Recent agreements that have been reached between the USSR and Algeria include a protocol on economic and technical cooperation (May 22,1974), a trade agreement for the period 1974–77 (June 11,1974), and a protocol on scientific and technical cooper ation (July 2,1975).
E. M. ZAITSEV