Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Austria on Feb. 25–29, 1924. (De facto relations had existed since the signing of the provisional accord of Dec. 7, 1921.) Relations were broken off in March 1938 as a result of Austria’s takeover by fascist Germany. The USSR was the only great power to protest against the anschluss. In October 1943 the foreign ministers of the USSR, the United States, and Great Britain signed the Declaration on Austria (see Moscow CONFERENCES). After the liberation of Austria on Oct. 20–24, 1945, diplomatic relations between the USSR and Austria were restored. The State Treaty for the Reestablishment of an Independent and Democratic Austria, signed in 1955 by the USSR, the USA, Great Britain, and France, and the constitutional law on permanent neutrality adopted by Austria on Oct. 26, 1955, laid the basis for cooperation between the Soviet Union and Austria in all areas.
Soviet-Austrian agreements include a trade and navigation treaty (Oct. 17, 1955), a treaty to establish consulates (Feb. 28, 1959), and a cultural and scientific cooperation agreement (Mar. 22, 1968). The two countries also signed an agreement on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation (May 24, 1968), under which a joint commission was established, and an agreement for the supply of gas to Austria and the supply of piping and other equipment to the USSR for gas pipelines (June 1, 1968). Other agreements include those on the establishment of regular air links (July 2, 1968), on trade (Aug. 5, 1970), on economic, scientific, technical, and industrial cooperation (Feb. 1,1973), and on international automobile travel (July 3,1973). The USSR and Austria also established a long-term program for the development of economic, scientific, technical, and industrial cooperation (July 3, 1973) and a program of cultural and scientific cooperation for the years 1975–77 (July 31,1975).
E. M. ZAITSEV