Diplomatic relations between the USSR and Canada were established on June 12,1942, although an agreement on establishing relations on the consular level had been concluded on Feb. 5,1942. The two countries subsequently signed an agreement on the principles governing military shipments to the USSR (Feb. 11,1944).
In the postwar period, Canada was party to the actions that led to the cold war, but relations were normalized through the efforts of the USSR. In a communiqué of Oct. 12, 1955, both countries recognized that differences in approach to political and economic problems should not form an obstacle to cooperation in practical matters, and they agreed on the necessity of developing friendly relations on the basis of noninterference in each other’s internal affairs. The two countries concluded a trade agreement (Feb. 29, 1956), which is periodically renewed (currently by a protocol covering the period between Apr. 7, 1972, and Apr. 18, 1976), and an agreement on the dispatch of diplomatic mail without couriers (exchange of notes between Dec. 7, 1958, and Jan. 15, 1959). Agreements were also signed on the mutual abolition of consular fees for issuing visas (exchange of memorandums on Dec. 22–23, 1959), on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (Jan. 24, 1964), and on possibilities to expand the sale of Soviet goods in the Canadian market (June 20, 1966). Other agreements include those on air transportation (July 11,1966) and on cooperation in fishing in the northeastern Pacific, off the coast of Canada (Jan. 22,1971); a separate agreement, also concluded on Jan. 22, 1971, established temporary rules governing navigation and fishing in this region.
An agreement on cooperation in the industrial application of advances in science and technology (Jan. 27, 1971) provided for the setting up of a mixed commission, and a protocol on consultations (May 19, 1971) provided for immediate contacts in the event of a threat of war or a breach of peace in order to exchange opinions and arrive at measures to improve the situation.
In a joint communiqué of May 28, 1971, the countries expressed their willingness to expand trade and cooperation and to increase the exchange of experience gained in commercial aviation and in developing the northern territories. The parties emphasized the special responsibility they bear for ensuring the safety of navigation and the preservation of the ecological balance in the arctic.
In a communiqué of Oct. 26, 1971, the two countries declared that they would be guided by principles of mutual trust and of respect for the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and equality of all states. The two countries also signed agreements on exchanges (Oct. 20,1971), which sought to promote cooperation in various spheres, on scientific cooperation (Sept. 11,1972), on cooperation in sports (to 1978), on a program of exchanges and on cooperation in science, education, and culture (both Dec. 8,1973), and on cooperation in radio and television broadcasting (Nov. 11,1974).
E. M. ZAITSEV