Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Cuba between Oct. 5 and Oct. 14,1942. After being broken off on Apr. 3,1952, they were restored de facto on Jan. 10,1959, after the victory of the Cuban Revolution of 1959, by an act in which the USSR recognized the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Cuba; diplomatic relations were officially restored on May 8,1960.
Soviet-Cuban relations have developed in accordance with the principle of socialist internationalism. A communiqué emphasizing the countries’ interest in expanding relations was signed on Feb. 13,1960, along with agreements on trade and payments and credit to Cuba. In accordance with these agreements, the USSR began supplying Cuba with petroleum, industrial equipment, foodstuffs, and other goods and began purchasing sugar and assisting Cuba in developing its national economy.
The USSR and Cuba signed agreements on technical assistance to Cuba and aid in training Cuban nationals (Nov. 16, 1960), on multilateral payments between Cuba, the USSR, and other socialist countries (Nov. 16, 1960), and on cultural cooperation (Dec. 12,1960).
In a joint communiqué of Sept. 20,1961, the countries set forth measures toward expanding relations. They concluded an agreement on air transportation (July 17, 1962), a protocol on free technical aid to Cuba in the development of the fishing industry (Aug. 3, 1962), and agreements on technical aid to Cuba in the construction of a fishing port and on cooperation in fishing (Sept. 25,1962).
During negotiations that took place from Aug. 27 to Sept. 2, 1962, an accord was reached on aid to the government of Cuba in the form of military equipment and specialists for the training of Cuban servicemen. An agreement was also signed on cooperation in the irrigation and drainage of lands in Cuba (Jan. 14, 1963). On Feb. 6, 1963, a new agreement was signed on extending credit to Cuba.
In a joint declaration of May 23, 1963, Cuba emphasized that the firm position of the USSR and other socialist countries during the Cuban Crisis (1962) had averted a thermonuclear war.
The USSR and Cuba also concluded agreements on scientific cooperation (May 28, 1963) and technical assistance to Cuba for training agricultural mechanics (June 4,1963), a long-term agreement on sugar shipments to the USSR (Jan. 21,1964), and agreements on scientific and technical cooperation (Oct. 28, 1964), trade and payments (Feb. 17, 1965), credit to Cuba (Feb. 17, 1965), and cooperation in the reconstruction of Cuban sugar refineries (Sept. 6,1965).
Other agreements have been concerned with cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (Sept. 15,1967), the formation of an intergovernmental commission on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation (Dec. 9,1970), economic and technical cooperation (Dec. 23,1972), and credit to Cuba (Dec. 23,1972).
Cuba has been a member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) since 1972. In a declaration of Feb. 2, 1974, the USSR and Cuba expressed their readiness to expand all-round cooperation on a long-term basis.
V. M. ZIMIANIN