Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Denmark June 18, 1924. A preliminary agreement of Apr. 23, 1923, signified Denmark’s de facto recognition of the Soviet Union. A trade agreement was concluded on June 17,1935, and an agreement on trade and payments on Sept. 18, 1940. After Denmark was occupied by fascist Germany, it broke off diplomatic relations with the USSR on June 22,1941; on Nov. 25,1941, it announced that it was joining the Anti-Comintern Pact. In April 1944 the USSR established relations with the antifascist Danish Freedom Council. Diplomatic relations were restored on May 10–16,1945, and a treaty on trade and navigation was concluded on Aug. 17,1946.
During the cold war, relations deteriorated after Denmark joined NATO in 1949, but they were normalized again through the efforts of the USSR. In a joint communiqué of Mar. 6, 1956, the countries emphasized that there were no disputes between them standing in the way of friendly all-around cooperation.
Pursuant to the communiqué, agreements were concluded on cooperation in rescue operations in the Baltic Sea (Mar. 6,1956), on air transportation (Mar. 31, 1956), on payments (May 30, 1959), on tax exemption for Soviet citizens in Denmark and Danish subjects in the USSR employed by enterprises and institutions of their respective countries (Mar. 21-May 10,1960), and on cultural cooperation (Sept. 11, 1962). An agreement was also concluded on settling respective financial, property, and other claims relating to the Latvian SSR, the Lithuanian SSR, the Estonian SSR, the western oblasts of the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR, and Kaliningrad Oblast, RSFSR (Feb. 27,1964).
A communiqué of June 20, 1964, noted that the Danish government had not placed and had no intention of placing nuclear weapons in Denmark. Agreements were subsequently concluded on rescue and salvage in Soviet and Danish waters (Oct. 9,1965), on cooperation in agricultural research (Oct. 9,1965), on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (May 14,1968), on setting up telephone and telegraph services between Europe and Japan through the USSR (Aug. 8, 1968), on long-term trade (Oct. 24,1969), on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation providing for the formation of an intergovernmental commission (July 17, 1970), and on exchanges in television and radio broadcasting (Oct. 14, 1970). The countries also signed agreements on questions of air transportation (memorandum, Feb. 9, 1971), on reciprocal tax exemption for airlines and their employees (protocol, Feb. 9, 1971), on scientific and technical cooperation in architecture and housing and city construction (protocol, July 6, 1971), on scientific cooperation and exchange of scientists (Aug. 26,1971), and on international highway service (Dec. 3,1971).
In a joint communiqué of Dec. 5,1971, the countries noted the identity or closeness of their positions on many international problems and expressed their intention to broaden mutually advantageous cooperation. Agreements were concluded on maritime navigation (Oct. 17, 1973) and on cooperation in ensuring safety of navigation in the Baltic Sea, the Baltic Straits, and the North Sea (Oct. 24,1973).
In a communiqué of Oct. 26,1973, the countries noted the possibilities for large-scale cooperation between the Baltic countries. On Aug. 28,1975, an agreement was signed on the development of economic, industrial, scientific, and technical cooperation for a ten-year period.
E. M. ZAITSEV