Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Egypt on Aug. 26,1943. After the fall of the Egyptian monarchy in the early 1950’s, agreements were concluded on trade (Feb. 27, 1953) and payments (Aug. 18,1953).
In a joint communiqué of June 22, 1956, the two countries expressed their desire for all-around cooperation. The USSR strongly supported Egypt at the time of the nationalization of the Suez Canal and the Suez Crisis (1956). The two countries concluded agreements on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (July 12, 1956), on cultural cooperation (Oct. 19, 1957), and on economic and technical cooperation (Jan. 29, 1958), which provided for the granting of long-term credit to Egypt.
In a joint declaration of May 15, 1958, the parties expressed their desire to strengthen relations on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, noninterference in each other’s internal affairs, and peaceful settlement of international disputes. Agreements were concluded on air transportation (Sept. 11,1958), on navigation (Sept. 18,1958), and on economic and technical aid to Egypt in constructing the first phase of the Aswan Dam (Dec. 27,1958), with the granting of long-term credits. These agreements were followed by agreements on assistance in completing the Aswan Dam (Aug. 27, 1960), which provided for the granting of long-term credits, on long-term trade (June 23,1962), on payments (June 23,1962), on cooperation in fishing (Feb. 27, 1964), and on cooperation in irrigation and the development of desert lands, which provided for the granting of financial aid to Egypt (Sept. 22, 1964). The two countries also concluded agreements on the delivery of agricultural machinery and equipment to Egypt as a gift (Sept. 22, 1964) and on economic and technical cooperation in the construction of certain of the industrial enterprises and structures projected during Egypt’s second five-year plan for social and economic development (Sept. 22,1964); this agreement included a provision for the granting of long-term credits. An agreement on commercial shipments between the two countries was also signed (Dec. 30,1965).
A protocol was signed providing, in particular, for assistance in the construction and operation of the Hulwan Iron and Steel Works (Feb. 22, 1966); also a protocol on assistance in developing Egypt’s oil-extracting industry (May 8,1969). Another protocol provided for assistance to Egypt in the construction of plants for the production of phosphorus, phosphatic fertilizers, and aluminum (July 23, 1969). A protocol was signed on cooperation in postal communications (Dec. 21,1970).
In a joint declaration of Jan. 15, 1971, it was pointed out that Aswan provided convincing proof of the possibility for young developing countries to make great strides in achieving political and economic independence by cooperating with the forces of socialism. Agreements were concluded on scientific and technical cooperation (Feb. 20,1971) and on economic and technical cooperation (Mar. 16, 1971); the latter agreement provided for the granting of credits to Egypt and assistance in the electrification of the countryside, the development of desert lands, the construction and expansion of several plants and granaries, and the development of fish-farming in the Aswan reservoir.
The USSR offered comprehensive support to Egypt during the Arab-Israeli War of 1967.
A treaty of friendship and cooperation (May 27, 1971) foresaw a continued development of relations between the countries, and in a joint communiqué of Apr. 29, 1972, the two countries reached an accord on strengthening military cooperation. Relations were also promoted by a consular convention (Feb. 3, 1975), an agreement on cooperation in the field of planning (Feb. 3, 1975), and a plan for cultural and scientific cooperation in the years 1975 and 1976 (Feb. 3, 1975). A joint communiqué of Feb. 6, 1975, emphasized the resolve of the two countries to broaden cooperation and deepen friendship, and a protocol on aspects of further cooperation was also signed (May 6, 1975). On Mar. 15, 1976, the Arab Republic of Egypt unilaterally abrogated the 1971 treaty.