Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Hungary on Feb. 4, 1934. The two countries signed a treaty of trade and navigation (Sept. 3, 1940), but diplomatic relations were broken on June 23, 1941, in connection with Hungary’s entrance into the war against the USSR on the side of fascist Germany. After the people’s democratic revolution of Dec. 28, 1944, Hungary declared war on fascist Germany and on Jan. 20, 1945, concluded an armistice with the USSR and the USSR’s allies (peace treaty signed Feb. 10, 1947). Diplomatic relations were restored on Sept. 25, 1945.
Relations between the USSR and the Hungarian People’s Republic are based on the principle of socialist internationalism. The two countries concluded agreements on the mutual delivery of goods (Aug. 27, 1945) and on economic cooperation (Aug. 27, 1945). A treaty on trade and navigation was signed (July 15, 1947), as was a 20-year treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance (Feb. 18, 1948). The USSR and Hungary joined with other socialist countries in January 1949 to establish the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), and both signed the Warsaw Pact of 1955. The two countries also concluded a long-term agreement on the mutual delivery of goods (Jan. 23, 1952).
In a declaration of Mar. 28, 1957, it was noted that the USSR had granted long-term credits on preferential terms, postponed repayment on earlier credits, and released Hungary from the obligation of paying for German property that had been transferred to Hungary and buying the Soviet share of former mixed Soviet-Hungarian companies. An agreement was also reached on the legal status of Soviet troops temporarily stationed in Hungary. Other agreements included those on cooperation in public health and medicine (Apr. 17, 1959), on reciprocal training of undergraduate and graduate students at higher educational and research institutions (Nov. 4, 1960), on cooperation in social security (Dec. 20, 1962), and on the formation of an intergovernmental commission on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation (Feb. 3, 1964). Agreements were also signed on cooperation in radio and television broadcasting (May 28, 1965), on international highway service (Mar. 19, 1966), and on cooperation in building a nuclear power plant in Hungary (Dec. 28, 1966).
In a 20-year treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance (Sept. 7, 1967), the two countries affirmed their commitment to the aims and principles of the 1948 treaty. Agreements were concluded on cooperation and coordination in the production and delivery of automobiles and automobile assembly components (Oct. 24, 1968), on cultural and scientific cooperation (Nov. 16, 1968), on air transportation (Dec. 2, 1968), on cooperation in tourism (Jan. 29, 1971), on the construction of an oil refinery in Hungary (May 24, 1971), on the construction of a gas pipeline (Nov. 16, 1971), and on communications (Oct. 13, 1972).
In a joint communique of Dec. 1, 1972, it was pointed out that the two countries would pay special attention to joint planning and to expanding specialization and cooperation in various economic sectors. The two countries signed agreements on the delivery by Hungary of certain types of agricultural products to the USSR until 1990 (Oct. 22, 1975) and on trade and payments for the years 1976–80 (Dec. 16, 1975).
V. G. PETROV