Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and India on Apr. 2–7,1947. Subsequently, the two countries concluded agreements on trade (Dec. 2, 1953), on technical aid to India (Dec. 2, 1953), and on the construction of a metallurgical plant in Bhilai (Feb. 2, 1955).
The countries issued a joint declaration on June 22, 1955, that noted the need for relations to be guided by the principles of peaceful coexistence.
A joint communique of Dec. 13, 1955, expressed an accord on expanding trade and economic cooperation. A series of agreements were concluded to implement the joint communique. Among the agreements were those on regular navigation service between the ports of the USSR and India (Apr. 6, 1956), on cooperation in the construction of enterprises of heavy industry and on extending long-term credit to India (Nov. 9, 1957), on air transportation (June 2, 1958), on the delivery as a gift to India of equipment for a technological institute in Bombay and on aid to India for training engineers (Dec. 12, 1958), and on cooperation in the construction of state medical enterprises in India (May 29, 1959).
Other agreements to implement the communique were those on the extending of a credit to help India fulfill its third five-year plan (Sept. 12, 1959), on a credit to India for the expansion and construction of industrial facilities and for geological prospecting (Feb. 12, 1960), on cultural, scientific, and technical cooperation (Feb. 12, 1960), on technical aid to India for the prospecting and extraction of oil and gas (June 16, 1960), on scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (Oct. 6, 1961), and on economic and technical aid in expanding India’s oil refineries (protocol of May 25, 1963).
To implement the communique there were also two agreements on free delivery to India of antismallpox vaccine (Dec. 2, 1963, and May 21, 1965) and agreements on economic and technical aid to India for the construction of a compressor and pump plant and a cast steel plant (protocol of Mar. 28, 1964) and on cooperation in the construction of a metallurgical plant in Bokaro and the extending of credit (Jan. 25, 1965). On Feb. 20, 1970, the two countries signed a protocol to expand the plant in Bokaro to a capacity of 4 million tons of steel a year. A final agreement to implement the Dec. 13, 1955, communique was one to set up an institute of Russian studies in New Delhi (Oct. 27, 1965).
India expressed high appreciation of the initiative of the USSR in organizing the Tashkent meeting, which laid the basis for a peaceful settlement of the Indian-Pakistani conflict of 1965.
After the Tashkent meeting agreements were signed on economic and technical cooperation in the construction of industrial enterprises and other facilities provided for in India’s fourth five-year plan, with the extending of Soviet credit (Dec. 10, 1966); also agreements on scientific and technical cooperation in agriculture (June 18, 1971).
New trade agreements were concluded in 1958, 1963, and 1970.
The treaty on peace, friendship, and cooperation, signed on Aug. 9, 1971, which has a term of 20 years, has become the basis for strengthening all-around relations and is one of the most important factors of peace and stability in Asia.
As a result of the treaty, agreements were signed on cooperation in outer-space research (May 10, 1972), on establishing an intergovernmental commission on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation (Sept. 19, 1972), and on cooperation in the applied sciences and technology (Oct. 10, 1972).
In addition, as a result of the treaty the two countries on Nov. 29, 1973, signed an agreement on the further development of economic and trade cooperation, an agreement on cooperation between the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the Planning Commission of India, a consular convention, and a protocol on cooperation in radio and television broadcasting.
The joint declaration of Nov. 29, 1973, reaffirmed the desire of the two countries to strengthen friendly ties. The countries reached an accord on new forms of cooperation regarding the specialization and integration of the production of individual types of manufactured goods. On Jan. 19, 1975, a protocol was signed on expanding marine traffic between the USSR and India.
E. M. ZAITSEV