Soviet-Iranian Agreements

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Soviet-Iranian Agreements


Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Iran on May 4–20,1920.

The Treaty of Feb. 26, 1921, abolished all unequal treaties and agreements of the tsarist government with Persia (Iran) and third states with respect to Persia. The countries pledged not to open their territory to troops of third states if the troops would create a threat to the borders, interests, and security of the other party. Article 6 gave the Soviet government the right to move its troops into Persia to take necessary measures of self-defense in the case of an attempt by third countries to turn Persia into a base for armed operations against the Soviet state and in the case of a threat to the Soviet borders, should the Persian government prove “unable to prevent such a threat.” The Soviet government waived all rights stemming from loans of the tsarist government and turned over to Persia, free of charge, highways and railroads, telegraph and telephone lines, the port of Enzeli (Bandar-e Pah-lavi), and other facilities. The countries agreed to resume trade and consular relations. The treaty is still in effect.

The treaty on guarantee and neutrality of Oct. 1, 1927, included pledges of the countries not to participate in political alliances and agreements directed against their security and independence, declared their renunciation of participation in economic blockades against each other, and provided for the peaceful settlement of disputes. The treaty is still in effect.

In the 1930’s the USSR and Iran signed several agreements, including conventions still in effect. Among these are conventions on locust control and on combating pests and diseases of plants, on veterinary sanitation (Aug. 27, 1935), and a treaty on trade and navigation (Mar. 25, 1940).

The Anglo-Soviet-Iranian Treaty of 1942 ensured Iran’s collaboration with the countries of the anti-Hitlerite coalition in World War II. In the Declaration of the USSR, Great Britain, and the USA on Iran, signed at the Tehran Conference of 1943, the signatories announced their intention to preserve the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of Iran.

In the postwar years, agreements were signed on settling border and financial questions (Dec. 2, 1954) and on transit service (Apr. 25, 1957). A treaty regarding the border regime and on the mode of settling border conflicts and incidents was signed on May 14, 1957.

An exchange of notes was made on Sept. 15, 1962, regarding the refusal to grant permission to foreign states to have any kind of rocket bases on Iranian soil.

On July 27, 1963, the two countries signed an agreement on economic and technical cooperation, which provided for assistance to Iran in the construction of the Araks hydroelectric complex and other facilities. A supplementary protocol to the 1954 agreement, signed on May 7, 1970, drew the new border along the reservoirs of the Araks hydroelectric complex and the Mil-sko-Mughan dam.

The countries also concluded agreements on payments (June 20, 1964), on cooperation in the construction of industrial and other facilities in Iran (Jan. 13, 1966), on deliveries of natural gas from Iran to the USSR and of equipment from the USSR to Iran in the period 1970–85 (Jan. 13, 1966), on cultural relations (Aug. 22, 1966), and on long-term trade (July 30, 1970).

In addition the countries concluded agreements on cooperation in developing engineering programs to train Iranian national personnel (Oct. 7, 1970) and on scientific and technical cooperation (Feb. 25, 1971). A treaty on the development of economic and technical cooperation, which determined the main directions of cooperation, was signed on Oct. 12, 1972. Agreements were also signed on cooperation in expanding the metallurgical plant in Isfahan (Mar. 15, 1973) and on cooperation in preventing hijackings of civilian aircraft (Aug. 7, 1973).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Unless the convention enters into force the 1921 and 1940 Soviet-Iranian agreements remain in effect.
Similar charges were brought against Azerbaijan in the Iranian protest note of 2001 citing the brazen disregard by Baku for the Soviet-Iranian agreements on division of the Caspian Sea signed in 1921 and 1940.

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