Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Iraq on May 16, 1941. On Jan. 3, 1955, the Iraqi government broke off diplomatic relations; they were restored on July 18–19,1958, after the proclamation of the Iraqi Republic (July 14, 1958).
The two countries concluded agreements on trade (Oct. 11, 1958), on economic and technical cooperation, with the granting of a favorable long-term credit to Iraq (Mar. 16, 1959), on cultural cooperation (May 5, 1959), and on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (Aug. 17, 1959).
The countries concluded another agreement on economic and technical cooperation, with the granting of a favorable long-term credit to Iraq (Aug. 18, 1960) and agreements on air transportation (Dec. 19, 1962), on deliveries of machines and equipment to Iraq (protocols of May 5, 1966, and Nov. 2, 1967), on cooperation in the fishing industry (Jan. 17, 1969), and on cooperation in radio broadcasting and television (June 23, 1969).
In addition, the countries concluded agreements on economic and technical cooperation in the development of Iraq’s oil-extracting industry, with the granting of a favorable long-term credit to Iraq (July 4, 1969) and on establishing a permanent commission on economic and technical cooperation (Mar. 8, 1970). A further agreement was signed on economic and technical cooperation on Apr. 8, 1971, which provided for aid to Iraq in the construction of an oil refinery, two hydroelectric power plants, a mine with an enrichment factory for phosphates, a superphosphate plant, a petrochemicals pipeline, and the Lake Tharthar-Euphrates River Canal. Another agreement provided for cooperation in the development of the North Rumaila oil field and for the construction of the Lake Tharthar-Tigris River Canal (protocol, June 23, 1971).
In a treaty on friendship and cooperation of Apr. 9, 1972, the two sides reaffirmed their desire to secure conditions for the preservation and development of their people’s social and economic gains. Other agreements signed include those on mutual legal aid (treaty, June 22, 1973), on economic and technical cooperation, which provided for assistance to Iraq in the construction of thermoelectric power plants and a cement plant (Nov. 3, 1973), and on scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (Apr. 15, 1975). A consular convention was signed on Apr. 15, 1975.
E. M. ZAITSEV