Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Italy on Feb. 7, 1924, and a treaty on trade and navigation was signed the same day. The treaty was preceded by a preliminary agreement of Dec. 26, 1921, which signified Italy’s de facto recognition of the Soviet Union. The treaty on friendship, nonaggression, and neutrality, signed on Sept. 2, 1933, remained formally in effect until June 22, 1941, when fascist Italy declared war on the USSR. After Italy signed the act of surrender (Sept. 29, 1943), the Moscow Three Power Conference (Oct. 19–30, 1943) adopted the Declaration on Italy, which expounded the major policy principles with respect to Italy. The USSR was the first of the great powers to restore diplomatic relations with Italy (Oct. 25, 1944).
After the signing of the peace treaty with Italy (Feb. 10, 1947), the two countries concluded a treaty on trade and navigation (Dec. 11, 1948), a cultural agreement (Feb. 9, 1960), agreements on cooperation in the peaceful use of atomic energy (Oct. 22, 1965) and on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation, which provided for the setting up of a joint commission (Apr. 23, 1966), and a general agreement between the Ministry of Foreign Trade of the USSR and the Fiat Company on building a plant in the USSR for the manufacture of passenger cars (Aug. 15, 1966).
A joint communique of Jan. 31, 1967, noted that there had been considerable development in Soviet-Italian relations. Pursuant to the communique the countries concluded a consular convention (May 16, 1967) and agreements on cooperation in tourism (May 16, 1967), on cooperation in agricultural research (Sept. 15, 1967), on air transportation (Mar. 10, 1969), on deliveries of Soviet natural gas to Italy and of Italian pipes and equipment for the gas industry of the USSR (Dec. 10, 1969), and on long-term trade (Jan. 15, 1970).
The countries concluded a protocol on consultations (Oct. 26, 1972), which reaffirmed the accord on more intensive regular Soviet-Italian consultations on major international questions of bilateral relations. In addition, they signed a treaty on marine transportation (Oct. 26, 1972), an agreement on scientific and technical cooperation (Feb. 21, 1974), a protocol on mutual consular institutions (Feb. 21, 1974), and an agreement on the development of economic, industrial, and technical cooperation for a ten-year period (July 25, 1974). The countries concluded a supplementary protocol to the 1974 agreement on scientific and technical cooperation to provide for cooperation on the environment (June 27, 1975).
A joint declaration of Nov. 20, 1975, reaffirmed the parties’ intention to expand bilateral relations. An agreement on economic cooperation for the period 1975–79 was concluded on Nov. 20, 1975.
L. I. DALMATOVA