The Soviet government was the first to recognize the new state that formed after the Mongolian People’s Revolution of 1921. An agreement of Nov. 5, 1921, established diplomatic relations between the two countries and cancelled Mongolia’s prerevolutionary debts to Russia. It prepared for cooperation based on socialist internationalism.
The USSR and the Mongolian People’s Republic (MPR) concluded agreements on the issue of a loan to the MPR (Dec. 23, 1924), the opening of an air route for passengers (July 8, 1926), and the simplification of border procedures for Soviet and Mongolian citizens (May 20, 1930). They also signed a protocol on the creation of the Mongsovbuner Joint-stock Company (Dec. 27, 1932) and agreements on the establishment of radio services in the MPR (Feb. 9, 1933) and the consolidation of loans and credit extended to the MPR (Aug. 27, 1933). On Feb. 11, 1934, agreements were signed on trade policy, on joint enterprises and on the sending of Soviet advisors, instructors, and specialists to the MPR.
In the early 1930’s, Japanese aggression endangered the independence of the MPR. An oral agreement of Nov. 27, 1934, provided for mutual assistance in the event of attack against the USSR or the MPR by a third country; this agreement was superseded by a protocol of Mar. 12, 1936. During the Khalkhin Gol River operations, the USSR assisted the MPR in repulsing the Japanese aggressors. The MPR extended assistance of every kind to the USSR during the Great Patriotic War (1941–45).
A treaty on friendship and mutual assistance and an agreement on economic and cultural cooperation were concluded on Feb. 27, 1946. The two countries later concluded agreements on the education of Mongolian citizens in Soviet institutions of higher education (May 12, 1948, and Apr. 30, 1952), on the creation of the Soviet-Mongolian Ulan-Batorskaia Zheleznaia Doroga Joint-stock Company (June 6, 1949), on cooperation in radio broadcasting (Sept. 11, 1953), on cultural cooperation (Apr. 24, 1956), and on air transportation (Dec. 1, 1956). In a joint declaration of May 15, 1957, the MPR noted the importance of Soviet assistance, particularly long-term credits, for the country’s economic development. A protocol signed on the same date provided for supplementary economic and financial assistance.
The USSR and the MPR also signed a trade treaty (Dec. 17, 1957), a consular convention (Aug. 25, 1958), and agreements on the exchange of specialists (Apr. 11, 1958), on the training of specialists and workers (Apr. 11, 1958), on the exchange of undergraduate and graduate students (Oct. 8, 1960), and on scientific and technical cooperation (Apr. 7, 1961).
Mongolia’s entry into the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) in 1962 strengthened Soviet-Mongolian ties. The countries signed agreements on the granting of Soviet credit to the MPR (Dec. 17, 1962), on further economic and technical assistance to the MPR for 1964 and 1965 (Nov. 13, 1964), and on economic and technical cooperation for the period 1966–70 (Apr. 19, 1965).
Protocols were signed on assistance in establishing river navigation lines in the MPR (Apr. 24, 1963), on economic and technical assistance in training Mongolian nationals (Nov. 18, 1963), and on assistance to the MPR in combating cattle plague (Mar. 17, 1964). A 20-year treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance was concluded on Jan. 15, 1966. Agreements were signed on the creation of an intergovernmental commission for economic, scientific, and technical cooperation (Jan. 31, 1967) and on cooperation in communications (July 30, 1967). The two countries also signed agreements on further economic aid to the MPR for the period 1968–70 (Nov. 30, 1967), on cooperation in television and radio broadcasting (Apr. 10, 1969), on the construction of various facilities and the delivery of goods to the MPR for the 50th anniversary of the Mongolian Revolution (July 10, 1969), and on economic cooperation for the period 1971–75 (Dec. 28.1970).
In a protocol of Oct. 28, 1970, both countries outlined the main trends in the extensive cooperation between the USSR and the MPR, as well as measures to coordinate the economic planning of both countries. Agreements were signed on the rational utilization of the Selenga River (July 3, 1974) and on border trade (July 3, 1974). During the visit of a Soviet delegation to the MPR from Nov. 25 to Nov. 27, 1974, both parties devoted particular attention to the coordination of their economies in accordance with the mutual program of socialist economic integration of the member countries of COMECON. They concluded an agreement on the further development of economic cooperation.
E. M. ZAITSEV