Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Pakistan by an exchange of notes from Apr. 27 to May 1, 1948.
The two countries concluded agreements on trade (June 27, 1956), on economic and technical assistance, whereby the USSR granted a loan to Pakistan to prospect for oil and natural gas (Mar. 4, 1961), and on air transportation (Oct. 7, 1963).
In a communique of Apr. 10, 1965, the countries noted the existence of possibilities for the development of good neighborly relations and cooperation. They agreed to base their relations on the principles of noninterference in internal affairs and respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty. Agreements were signed on trade for the period 1965–67 (Apr. 7, 1965), on the delivery of Soviet machinery and equipment during the period 1965–67 (protocol, Apr. 7, 1965), and on cultural and scientific cooperation (June 5, 1965).
Pakistan reacted favorably to the USSR initiative summoning the Tashkent Conference (Jan. 4–10, 1966) for the peaceful settlement of the Indo-Pakistani conflict of 1965. The countries concluded agreements on economic and technical cooperation, whereby the USSR assisted Pakistan to carry out its economic programs and to construct a number of facilities in the period 1966–72 (Sept. 9, 1966), on cooperation in fishing (July 26, 1968), and on delivery of Soviet machinery and equipment during the period 1968–70 (protocol, July 29, 1968). In other agreements the USSR extended a credit to Pakistan to prospect for oil and natural gas (Jan. 22, 1969), cooperation was established for the peaceful use of nuclear energy (May 20, 1970), and the USSR extended another credit to Pakistan for the construction of a metallurgical plant (Jan. 22, 1971).
Soviet relations with Pakistan were broken off as a result of the Indo-Pakistani military conflict of 1971. In a joint communique of Mar. 18, 1972, the two countries expressed the desire to renew diplomatic relations. They agreed to extend existing agreements on economic and technical cooperation and stated their intention to develop good neighborly relations.
Subsequently, the two countries concluded an agreement on economic and technical cooperation, whereby the USSR assisted Pakistan to construct a metallurgical plant, a thermal electric power plant, electrical transmission lines, and a radio station and to conduct geological prospecting work (protocol, Mar. 10, 1973). The countries also concluded a long-term agreement on cooperation in television and radio broadcasting (Apr. 9, 1975).
E. M. ZAITSEV