Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Rumania on June 9, 1934. An agreement of Mar. 5–9, 1918, between the RSFSR and the Kingdom of Rumania providing for the evacuation of Bessarabia by Rumania was broken when the Rumanian government annexed Bessarabia. An agreement was reached on June 26–28, 1940, providing for the reunification of Bessarabia and northern Bucovina with the USSR. Rumania joined fascist Germany in its attack on the USSR on June 22, 1941. After the overthrow of the fascist regime by the popular armed uprising of 1944, Rumania signed an armistice with the USSR and other countries of the anti-Hitler coalition on Sept. 12, 1944 (a peace treaty was concluded Feb. 10, 1947). Diplomatic relations between the USSR and Rumania were resumed Aug. 6, 1945. Relations between the two countries are guided by the principle of socialist internationalism.
The two countries concluded an agreement on trade and maritime navigation on Feb. 20, 1947, and signed a treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance on Feb. 4, 1948. The USSR and Rumania joined other socialist countries to create the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) in January 1949 and to conclude the Warsaw Pact on May 14, 1955. The two countries concluded a treaty on Soviet-Rumanian border regulations on Nov. 25, 1949, and a new treaty dealing with border issues on Feb. 27, 1961.
The two countries concluded agreements on air transportation (Jan. 25, 1955), on the mutual exchange of specialists (Dec. 19, 1957), and on technical assistance to Rumania for the building of chemical industry facilities (Dec. 2, 1959). In addition, agreements were signed on the mutual training of undergraduate and graduate students in institutions of higher education and institutes for scientific research (Dec. 8, 1960), on cooperation on customs issues (Dec. 22, 1960), on cooperation on social security (Dec. 24, 1960).
On Mar. 13, 1965, the two countries signed an agreement whereby the USSR would supply equipment and technical assistance to Rumania for the construction of the hydroelectric and navigation system known as the Iron Gate. Other agreements provided for the creation of an intergovernmental commission for economic cooperation (Oct. 8, 1966), for Soviet delivery of equipment, instruments, and materials and for Soviet technical assistance in the construction of thermal power stations and other facilities (Jan. 18, 1967), and for cooperation in radio and television broadcasting (Feb. 15, 1969). There were also agreements on visa abrogation (June 30, 1969), on cooperation in the construction of a nuclear power plant in Rumania (May 26, 1970), and on Soviet delivery of equipment and the providing of technical assistance in the construction of iron and steel production facilities (June 2, 1970).
On July 7, 1970, the countries signed a 20-year treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance. Two other agreements were signed whereby the USSR provided equipment and technical assistance for the construction of chemical industry facilities (Sept. 10, 1970) and for the construction of pulp and paper plants (Sept. 17, 1970). Other agreements concerned a consular convention (Mar. 14, 1972) and cooperation in tourism (June 16, 1972).
V. G. PETROV