Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and Turkey June 2-Nov. 11, 1920. The two countries signed a treaty of friendship and fraternity on Mar. 16, 1921, and a treaty of friendship and neutrality on Dec. 17, 1925. According to a protocol of Dec. 17, 1929, both countries bound themselves to refrain from concluding political agreements with any state bordering on the USSR and on Turkey without notifying each other (the USSR renounced this protocol on Mar. 19, 1945).
According to the protocol of Jan. 21, 1934, the USSR granted loans to Turkey for the construction of two large textile plants. On July 20, 1936, the USSR and Turkey signed, along with a number of other countries, the Montreux Convention on the status of the Black Sea Straits. On July 15, 1937, the two countries signed a convention on regulations for settling border disputes. On Oct. 8, 1937, the parties signed a treaty on trade and maritime navigation and an agreement on trade and payments.
Relations between the USSR and Turkey, which deteriorated at the beginning of World War II, were normalized in the mid-1960’s through the efforts of the USSR. Agreements were concluded on direct rail connections (Apr. 27, 1961) and on telephone and telegraphic services (June 9, 1962). Another agreement provided for the delivery of equipment and materials to Turkey and the furnishing of services for the construction of several industrial enterprises; agreement was also reached on conditions for repayment (Mar. 25, 1967). An agreement was also concluded on air transportation (Aug. 29, 1967).
A joint declaration of Apr. 17, 1972, concerning the principles of neighborly relations noted that both countries would continue to develop their relations in the tradition of peace, friendship, and neighborly cooperation. A joint communique of Dec. 29, 1975, noted the continuing development of fruitful cooperation between the USSR and Turkey.
V. G. PETROV