Soviet-Vietnamese (Democratic Republic of Vietnam) Agreements
Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) on Jan. 30, 1950. Soviet-Vietnamese relations developed on the basis of the principle of socialist internationalism.
The USSR played a major role in bringing the war in Vietnam to an end with the signing of the Geneva agreements of 1954. In a communique of July 18, 1955, the two countries stated their full unanimity of views. The USSR and other socialist countries provided the DRV with substantial gratuitous aid. An agreement for DRV citizens to be trained in civilian secondary and higher educational institutions in the USSR was signed on Aug. 27, 1955; an agreement on cultural cooperation, on Feb. 15, 1957; and a trade and navigation treaty, on Mar. 12, 1958. An agreement on scientific and technical cooperation of Mar. 7, 1959, provided for the establishment of a joint commission.
Under an agreement for economic and technical assistance to the DRV in carrying out its 1961–65 economic development plan (signed Dec. 23, 1960), the USSR granted long-term credits and undertook to help in the construction of heavy engineering, mining, power, and other types of enterprises and in carrying out comprehensive geological exploration. Other agreements included one for economic and technical assistance to the DRV in constructing industrial projects and for delivery of materials and equipment (Sept. 15, 1962).
In a communique of July 4, 1961, the USSR supported the demand of the Vietnamese people for an end to foreign intervention. In a declaration of Feb. 10, 1965, both countries condemned the American air attack on DRV territory. The Soviet government announced that it would provide the necessary aid, including aid to strengthen the DRV’s defense capability. A communique of Apr. 17, 1965, stated that the two countries were coordinating measures to defend the sovereignty of the DRV. An agreement was signed on July 10, 1965, for an outright grant of additional economic aid to the DRV, and on Dec. 21, 1965, agreements were concluded on additional technical aid and on the additional provision of gratuitous economic aid.
In communiques of Jan. 12, 1966, and Sept. 24, 1967, the USSR reaffirmed its determination to provide all-around assistance to the DRV. Under an agreement of Nov. 25, 1968, on a grant of outright economic and military aid to the DRV, and an agreement of Oct. 15, 1969, on a grant of long-term credits, as well as in regard to certain other questions of cooperation between the two countries, the USSR delivered food, petroleum products, equipment, and other goods. In a communique of Sept. 11, 1969, and a statement of Oct. 7, 1971, the USSR again affirmed its determination to support the Vietnamese people in their struggle to preserve their native land and to fortify the socialist gains made in the DRV. Among the agreements signed were one for additional gratuitous aid to strengthen the DRV’s defense capabilities (August 1971), one granting new credits (Oct. 7, 1971), one establishing an intergovernmental commission on economic, scientific, and technical cooperation (Dec. 9, 1972), and one providing for economic and technical aid (Dec. 9, 1972).
The USSR signed the final act of the international conference on Vietnam on Mar. 2, 1973. This confirmed and approved the Paris agreement ending the war and arranging for peace in Vietnam. In a joint declaration of July 16, 1973, the USSR declared its support for the efforts toward peaceful reunification of the country and indicated that it regarded the credits it had granted the DRV as free aid, not requiring repayment.
Agreements made since then include those on economic and technical cooperation (Aug. 14, 1973), on cultural and scientific cooperation (Nov. 11, 1974), on economic and technical aid (Dec. 8, 1974), on the provision of economic assistance to the DRV (Oct. 30, 1975), and on the provision of economic and technical aid to the DRV in building industrial plants and other facilities from 1976 to 1980 (Dec. 18, 1975). A declaration of Oct. 30, 1975, outlined the main directions for the expansion of ties of all kinds between the two fraternal parties and peoples.
V. M. ZIMIANIN
Soviet-Vietnamese (Republic of South Vietnam) Agreements
Diplomatic relations were established between the USSR and the Republic of South Vietnam on June 13, 1969. In a communique of Sept. 11, 1969, the USSR expressed full support for the position of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam and the Provisional Revolutionary Government. An agreement for economic assistance to the Republic of South Vietnam was signed on Dec. 20, 1973, and an agreement on economic assistance was signed on Dec. 10, 1974.