soybean

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Related to Soybean proteins: Soy protein, Soya protein

soybean,

 

soya bean,

or

soy pea,

leguminous plant (Glycine max, G. soja, or Soja max) of the family Leguminosae (pulsepulse,
in botany, common name for members of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae), a large plant family, called also the pea, or legume, family. Numbering about 650 genera and 17,000 species, the family is third largest, after the asters and the orchids.
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 family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, where it has been cultivated as a principal crop for at least 5,000 years. There are over 2,500 varieties in cultivation, producing beans of many sizes, shapes, and colors. As a crop, soybeans are high in yield and easy to harvest; they grow well wherever corn is cultivated.

In East Asia, soybeans are used in a multitude of forms, e.g., as soy sauce, soybean meal, vegetable oil, tofu (bean curd), miso (fermented soybean paste), and soy milk, and as a coffee substitute. In the United States, soybean products such as tofu, miso, and soy milk have become especially popular in lowfat and vegetarian diets (see vegetarianismvegetarianism,
theory and practice of eating only fruits and vegetables, thus excluding animal flesh, fish, or fowl and often butter, eggs, and milk. In a strict vegetarian, or vegan, diet (i.e.
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). The green crop is used for forage and hay, and the cake as stock feed and as fertilizer. Soybean oil is used commercially in the manufacture of glycerin, paints, soaps, rubber substitutes, plastics, printing ink, and other products.

Cultivation of the soybean, long confined chiefly to China, gradually spread to other countries. During World War II soybeans became important in both North America and Europe chiefly as substitutes for other protein foods and as a source of edible oil. In the United States they are now a leading crop, and Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay also are significant soybean-exporting nations. China and Japan are by far the largest importers of soybeans.

Soybeans are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Leguminosae.

Bibliography

See M. M. Lager, The Useful Soybean (1945); J. P. Houck et al., Soybeans and Their Products (1972).

soybean

[′sȯi‚bēn]
(botany)
Glycine max. An erect annual legume native to China and Manchuria and widely cultivated for forage and for its seed.

soya bean

(US and Canadian), soybean
1. an Asian bean plant, Glycine max (or G. soja), cultivated for its nutritious seeds, for forage, and to improve the soil
2. the seed of this plant, used as food, forage, and as the source of an oil
References in periodicals archive ?
Anton, "Effect of high-pressure treatment on emulsifying properties of soybean proteins," Food Hydrocolloids, vol.
Soybean protein isolate (SPI) was prepared from soybean meal at room temperature to prevent heat denaturation of the proteins [24].
The GMC of Boregine was slightly better than soybean protein isolate (10%).
Our result in good agreement with other similar nutritional intervention studies in which the effect of soybean protein on mice or humans was investigated [21-23].
Studies on the separation of 7S and 11S globulin in soybean protein. China Food Additives, 6: 6-7.
On the basis of feeding studies using rats as model animals, researchers have asserted that soybean protein does not provide adequate methionine to meet human dietary needs (Young, 1991).
Soybean protein hydrolysates have been utilized extensively in mammalian cell culture and demonstrated the best result compared to other plants [3].
T Lee, "FTIR spectra studies on the secondary structures of 7S and 11S globulins from soybean proteins using AOT reverse micellar extraction," Food Hydrocolloids, vol.
It is reported that the nutritional values of soybean protein and the growth performance of piglets can be improved when soybean meal was treated with either protease hydrolyses (Caine et al., 1997; 1998; Dierick et al., 2004) or fermentation in pigs (Feng et al., 2007; Jones et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2010a,b).
Besides, simple diets which contain high dietary soybean meal levels result in villus hypersensitivity to the soybean protein that decrease pig gains (Li et al., 1991).
Soybean proteins are deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine).