Spacelab


Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to Spacelab: Skylab

Spacelab

(spayss -lab) A reusable space laboratory that was carried into Earth orbit as a payload aboard several of NASA's space shuttle missions between 1983 and 1998, and in which a team of scientists, known as payload specialists, were able to oversee or take part in short-term experiments devoted to science and technology. It remained in the cargo bay of the shuttle during an orbital flight. It was designed and constructed by ESA, and delivered to NASA in 1980. There were two basic sections in Spacelab: a long or short pressurized module in which the payload specialists could operate the experiments on board, and up to three unpressurized U-shaped ‘pallets' or platforms on which instruments could be directly exposed to space. A pressurized tube connected the module to the shuttle's living quarters. Some Spacelab missions used only the pallets, together with a services module.

The first mission, Spacelab–1, was launched in Nov. 1983 and flew 72 experiments from ESA countries, the USA, Japan, and Canada, mainly devoted to human physiology and materials sciences. Spacelab–3, in Apr. 1985, had many microgravity experiments. Spacelab–2, in July 1985, was largely an astronomical mission; four telescopes were used on an ultraprecise pallet-mounted instrument-pointing system (IPS), which was also used in the Astro missions in Dec. 1990 and Nov. 1995. A joint German/ESA mission in Oct. 1985, Spacelab D1, flew microgravity and life-sciences experiments. There followed several dedicated series of missions: to the life sciences, starting with SLS–1 in June 1991; to microgravity, starting with IML–1 (the International Microgravity Laboratory) in Jan. 1992; and to atmospheric studies, with the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS–1) in Apr. 1992. The year 1992 also saw the Spacelab-J mission, a NASA collaboration with the Japanese space agency NASDA. This mission carried 34 US and Japanese experiments devoted to the life sciences and materials science. A joint US-Russian mission, Spacelab-Mir (Jun–Jul 1995) was carried aboard the space shuttle on a flight to the Mir space station, where life-sciences studies were carried out, including an evaluation of the Russian science research program, which sought to counter the effects of long stays in space. A final multinational Spacelab mission, designated Neurolab and devoted to a study of the nervous system in microgravity, was flown during April and May 1998.

References in periodicals archive ?
This time around, the Spacelab team will monitor the effects of injecting erythropoietin into laboratory rats.
Human astronauts and fish studied in other Spacelab J experiments will provide additional clues to physiological adaptations to space.
ATLAS-I will rely on a suite of 11 instruments -- some used during previous Spacelab missions -- to probe Earth's middle and upper atmosphere, measure the solar enery output and study how magnetic and electric fields in the atmosphere link Earth with the sun.
The Spacelab D-1 mission's final accomplishment before Challenger rolled to a stop at California's Edwards Air Force Base was a test of a computerized steering system for the shuttle's nosewheel, designed to remedy brake damage and excess tire wear last suffered during an April landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
During the telescope's very first use aboard Spacelab 2, however, many of its detectors were quickly saturated by a strong source of infrared background emissions of unknown origin, about 500 to 1,000 times more intense than the natural infrared radiation emitted by dust in the solar system.
The company is excited to be expanding its association with Riester, and to be partnering with Spacelabs Healthcare, adding their significant product portfolio to Ecomed's range of quality products.
Instrumentarium announced on 22 March that it had signed a definitive agreement to acquire all outstanding shares of Spacelabs for USD14.
To help improve care and increase efficiencies, Spacelabs solutions such as the new qube and Xprezzon patient monitors, as well as the company's Ultraview telemetry transmitters, will replace existing equipment in the intensive care, cardiac critical care, and telemetry areas.
The Finnish medical equipment group Instrumentarium Corporation has entered into an agreement to acquire the US company Spacelabs Medical Inc for EUR160m in cash.
Spacelabs Medical renamed the recently acquired Burdick, Inc.
Spacelabs Healthcare, the inventor of Holter technology, and whose ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitors are widely recognized as today's "gold standard," will exhibit its latest solutions next week at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions meeting in Los Angeles.
Highlighting an impressive array of new products, Spacelabs Healthcare will present its extensive collection of perioperative solutions at the American Society of Anesthesiologists' annual meeting, October 13-17 in Washington, DC.