Spahis


Also found in: Dictionary.

Spahis

or

Sipahis

(spä`hē), Ottoman cavalrycavalry,
a military force consisting of mounted troops trained to fight from horseback. Horseback riding probably evolved independently in the Eurasian steppes and the mountains above the Mesopotamian plain. By 1400 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information.
. The Spahis were organized in the 14th cent. on a feudal basis. The officers held fiefs (timars) granted to them by the sultan and commanded the personal loyalty of the peasants who worked the land. The Spahis were entitled to all income from the fief in return for military service to the sultan. Until the mid-16th cent. they provided the bulk of the Ottoman army. Committed to the tradition of light cavalry, they were slow to adopt firearms, whose development made the cavalry less important. They remained politically important until Mahmud IIMahmud II,
1784–1839, Ottoman sultan (1808–39), younger son of Abd al-Hamid I. He was raised to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) upon the deposition of his brother, Mustafa IV, and continued the reforms of his cousin, Selim III.
..... Click the link for more information.
 revoked their fiefs in 1828, two years after he crushed the JanissariesJanissaries
[Turk.,=recruits], elite corps in the service of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). It was composed of war captives and Christian youths pressed into service; all the recruits were converted to Islam and trained under the strictest discipline.
..... Click the link for more information.
 with modern artillery in his effort to build a modern army. In the French army certain Algerian and Senegalese cavalry units were also called Spahis. The term is sometimes spelled Sepahis.
References in periodicals archive ?
(15) By summer, the DFPS consisted of a battalion of the 115th Colonial Infantry Regiment, two battalions of the Tirailleurs Algeriens (Algerian sharpshooters), and a platoon of the Chasseurs d'Afrique (Hunters of Africa), who were soon replaced by the all-Algerian Spahis. (16)
The main eyewitness account, a diary of the siege written by the Spanish poet-mercenary Francesco Balbi, lists just under 30,000 'special forces', including the Janissaries and spahis (cavalry).
While definitive evidence has not yet surfaced, it is believed these carbines were produced for the Spahis Cavalry units of the Coloniale Armee des Afrique.
Spahis (2002) provides an overview of constructing a family pedigree.
(The French cavalry regiment consisted of North African troops--two squadrons of Spahis and two squadrons of Chasseurs d'Afrique.)
Maghraoui focuses on the Moroccan "Goums," "Tirailleurs," and "Spahis" soldiers who fought in the French army, as colonial institutions that were created respectively in 1908, 1911, and 1912.
The capture of Napoleon III, the withdrawal of the Spahis (soldiers of the native cavalry corps of the French army in North Africa) from Algeria and of the most pro-Arab officers, the institution of a civil regime for the service of the colonists, created an explosive situation.
These words often occur in Fantasia's historical chapters, and they refer to: a) titles and ranks, including dey (Turkish military leader, city administrator; 16), bey (Turkish governor, often an officer; 27; Vaste, 140, 147-48), Janissaires (Turkish infantry soldiers), agha (administrator, local militia leader; 27), pacha (regional leader; 50), spahis (Algerian soldier in the French cavalry; 63), chaouch (orderly, usher; 113), cheikh (chief; 204; Vaste, 149, 288), and caid (administrator; Vaste, 214, 269, 280, 285).
Born at Magnesia (April 18, 1590), the son of Sultan Mohammed III; sultan on his father's death (January 22, 1603); agreed to the Treaty of Zsitvatorok (November 11, 1606), which ended the so-called Long War with Austria; suppressed the revolts of the Druse leader Fakhr al-din in Lebanon (1610-1613), and the sipahis (spahis, feudal cavalry) in Istanbul; worked vigorously to restore effective government to the Ottoman dominions, executing ineffective or corrupt viziers and instituting several new regulations; also noted for his contributions to religious institutions and shrines; died in Istanbul (December 22, 1617) and was succeeded by his son Osman II.
Indigenous infantry were known as tirailleurs (sharpshooters), such as the Tirailleurs Algeriens (together with the Tirallieurs Tunisiens often known as Turcos), while indigenous cavalry carried the name of Spahis (horsemen, from the Ottoman Turkish Sipahi).
Single gene disorders (also known as Mendelian) (Spahis, 2002) are inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked manner.
In this essay, I write about the way "Moroccan colonial soldiers," which might include Goums, Tirailleurs, and Spahis were represented in a colonial discourse which sought to appropriate them, and how they were excluded from a nationalist discourse which chose to silence them.