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members of a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense) that is the basic population of Spain and its possessions, the Balearic and Canary islands. The number of Spaniards in Spain and on the islands is approximately 25 million (1970). Spaniards also live in Africa (c. 350,000, mainly in the Spanish colonies, Morocco, and Algeria), the Latin American countries (c. 500,000), France (c. 700,000), and West Germany (c. 150,000). Spaniards speak the Spanish language, and their religion is Catholicism.

The Iberian tribes, who created the Almería culture (third millennium B.C.) during the Bronze Age in the southeastern part of the peninsula, played a decisive role in the formation of the ancient population of Spain. Celts migrated from the north to the peninsula in the first half of the first millennium B.C. Colonists from Phoenicia (eighth century B.C.), Greece (late seventh to sixth century B.C.), and Carthage (from the sixth century B.C.) established settlements in the south. The Carthaginians were forced out by the Romans, who had a powerful influence on the local tribes from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D. In particular, the creation of the local Romance languages began on the basis of Vulgar Latin. In the fifth and sixth centuries the Suevi, Vandals, Alani, and Visigoths, who conquered the peninsula, also played an important role in the formation of the Spanish people, although they themselves were assimilated into the local Romanized population, adopting its language and culture. The Spaniards were also heavily influenced by the Arabs and Berbers (called Moors by the local population), who invaded Spain in 711–18. The Reconquest (eighth century to late 15th century), which culminated in the unification of Spanish territory into a single state, contributed to the shaping of a Spanish national self-awareness, although the inhabitants of some regions continued into the 20th century to refer to themselves as Castil-ians, Aragonese, Andalusians, and so on, and in many ways preserved their ethnic distinctiveness. The Spaniards formed a nation only in the late 19th century because of the historically established separateness of the individual regions and the slow development of capitalism in Spain. The Spaniards exerted much influence on the formation of numerous modern peoples in Latin America.


Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography, pp. 608–09.)
References in classic literature ?
The only just thing the rogues did was, that when the Spaniards came ashore, they gave my letter to them, and gave them provisions, and other relief, as I had ordered them to do; also they gave them the long paper of directions which I had left with them, containing the particular methods which I took for managing every part of my life there; the way I baked my bread, bred up tame goats, and planted my corn; how I cured my grapes, made my pots, and, in a word, everything I did.
The Spaniards would have been satisfied with this had the others but let them alone, which, however, they could not find in their hearts to do long: but, like the dog in the manger, they would not eat themselves, neither would they let the others eat.
These two men made their number five; but the other three villains were so much more wicked than they, that after they had been two or three days together they turned the two newcomers out of doors to shift for themselves, and would have nothing to do with them; nor could they for a good while be persuaded to give them any food: as for the Spaniards, they were not yet come.
The Spaniard sprang forward and seized the gun by its muzzle, in order to strike Raoul on the head with the butt.
But confusion and disorder still reigned among the Spaniards for Sir William Felton and his men had swept through half their camp, leaving a long litter of the dead and the dying to mark their course.
it were better so than to be polluted by his touch," answered the Spaniard, with his black eyes sparkling with rage and hatred.
I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turn his head about to see if his father was in the same place and posture as he left him sitting; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at which he started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with that swiftness to him that one could scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground as he went; but when he came, he only found he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to me presently; and then I spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up if he could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of him.
It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects, and they were of three different religions - my man Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist.
Philip, with his passion for the romantic, welcomed the opportunity to get in touch with a Spaniard; he used all his persuasiveness to overcome the man's reluctance.
"I'll tell you what I'll do," said the Spaniard at last.
"Well," muttered Father Brown, blinking, "here is the legend of the Spaniard plain enough.
One story credits my unfortunate ancestor with having had the Spaniard cut in two; and that will fit the pretty picture also.