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river, c.150 mi (240 km) long, issuing from Spanish Lake, S Ont., Canada, NW of Sudbury, and flowing generally S through Biskotasi and Agnew lakes to Lake Huron opposite Manitoulin island. There are several hydroelectric stations on the river.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the official and literary language of Spain, all countries of Central and South America (except for Brazil, Haiti, Guyana, Surinam, and the islands of the Lesser Antilles), and Mexico. Spanish is also used by the populations of the former Spanish colonies of Morocco, Tangier (Africa), the Philippine Islands (along with Tagalog), and the southern areas of the USA (along with English). Ladino (called judeoespañol), which is spoken by Sephardic Jews—descendants of the Jews who were driven out of Spain in 1492—is found in the Balkans and the Middle East. Spanish is spoken by more than 170 million people, including 26 million in Spain (1970, estimate).

Spanish is divided into two main groups of dialects: the northern group, which is subdivided into the dialect of León and Asturias and the Aragón dialect, and the southern group, which consists of the dialects of Andalusia, Murcia, and Estremadura (estremeño). There are also many regional variants in the Latin American countries. The specific features of Latin American Spanish are primarily in the areas of vocabulary and pronunciation.

The Spanish language represents the continuation and subsequent development of Vulgar Latin, which was brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War (218–201 B.C.) and which replaced the language of the aboriginal Iberian population. The subsequent conquests of Spain by Germanic tribes (fifth century) and Arabs (from the eighth to the 15th century) affected only the vocabulary of Spanish. Since the Castilian dialect formed the basis for literary Spanish, Spanish was for a long time known as Castilian (el castelland).

The sound system of Spanish underwent drastic changes in comparison with Vulgar Latin; initial Latin f shifted to h and later disappeared from pronunciation, being retained only in the orthography (Latin filium > Spanish hijo [ikho], “son”); the consonant clusters fl, pl, and cl were reduced to soft l (Il) in initial word position (Latin flammam > Spanish llama, “flame”); plosive consonants became voiced in intervocalic position (Latin apothecam > Spanish bodega, “cellar”); and the short stressed vowels and ě in Latin were diphthongized in Spanish (Latin sortem > Spanish suerte, “fortune”).

Modern Spanish has five simple vowels (a, o, e, i, u), a large number of diphthongs and triphthongs, and 18 consonants—16 hard and two soft (Il and ñ). Words ending in a vowel, n, or s are accented on the penultimate syllable (Dolores; canto, “song,” “singing”), and words ending in other consonants bear the stress on the final syllable (cristal, “glass”). All exceptions to these rules are indicated in writing by an accent mark (magnífico, “magnificent”). Spanish uses the Roman alphabet. A distinctive feature of Spanish orthography is the inverted question and exclamation marks, as in ¿Qué hora es? (“What time is it?”) and ¡Qué niña más mona! (“What a cute little girl!”).

The basic structural features of modern Spanish grammar were formed by the end of the 16th century. Nouns and adjectives are not declined, and word order is relatively free. The verb has 115 morphological and analytical (using the auxiliary verb haber, “to have”) forms. There are many periphrastic (descriptive) forms that convey various temporal and aspectual nuances.

Most Spanish words are derived from Vulgar Latin, although their meanings have changed during the long process of development (compare Latin famelicum, “hungry,” with Spanish jamelgo, “jade,” “nag”). Latin words also entered Spanish from Classical Latin in later periods. The Spanish vocabulary contains words of German origin and borrowings from French, Italian, and Arabic. Other European languages received words through Spanish, such as numerous Arabic words (for example, “algebra,” “cipher,” and “zenith”) and words of American Indian origin (tomate, “tomato,” chocolate, “chocolate,” tabaco, “tobacco,” maiz, “maíze,” quina, “quina,” cacao, “cocoa”).


Shishmarev, V. F. Ocherki po istorii iazykov Ispanii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Vasil’eva-Shvede, O. K., and G. V. Stepanov. Grammatika ispanskogo iazyka, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1963.
Levintova, E. I., and E. M. Vol’f. Ispanskii iazyk: Grammaticheskii ocherk, literaturnye teksty s kommentariiami i slovarem. Moscow, 1964.
Katagoshchina, N. A., and E. M. Vol’f. Sravnitel’no-sopostavitel’naia grammatika romanskikh iazykov: Ibero-romanskaia podgruppa. Moscow, 1968.
Karpov, N. P. Fonetika ispanskogo iazyka. Moscow, 1969.
Stepanov, G. V. Ispanskii iazyk v Stranakh Latinskoi Ameriki. Moscow, 1963.
Menéndez Pidal, R. Manual de gramática histórica española, 11th ed. Madrid, 1962.
Navarro Tomás, T. Manual de pronunciación española. Madrid, 1959.
Gili y Gaya, S. Curso superior de sintaxis española, 7th ed. Barcelona, 1960.
Diccionario de la lengua española, 19th ed. Madrid, 1970.
Corominas, J. Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana, vols. 1–4. Madrid, 1954–57.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


jasmine flower symbolizing lust. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 175]
See: Lust
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


the official language of Spain, Mexico, and most countries of South and Central America except Brazil: also spoken in Africa, the Far East, and elsewhere. It is the native language of approximately 200 million people throughout the world. Spanish is an Indo-European language belonging to the Romance group
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
(14) Those pamphlets were widely read in the 1580s, so, for spectators attending a performance of Titus Andronicus in the early 1590s, Shakespeare's Goths probably had an air of Spanishness. (15)
Geographically and politically distant from the Spanish capital and separated from the European continent by some 14 km of water, Christian Ceuties passionately defend the espanolidad, or Spanishness of the city.
The paradoxical identity--in which the immigrant is both near and far, essential and hidden, an object of both empathy and antagonism--is the true subject of the film, which ultimately suggests how difficult is to define what Spanishness is.
When examining Hemingway's perception of Spain, it's important to ask--who were the models of "Spanishness" that he emulated in his cultural mimicry?
Spanish Industry Minister Miguel Sebastian said in an interview with Cadena Ser radio that the way to ensure Repsol's "Spanishness" is for the majority of shareholders to be Spanish, as the case now with Sacyr holding 20 percent and savings bank La Caixa 12.8 percent.
Fernando de los Rios senalo que los proyectos educativos de la Republica, como las Misiones pedagogicas, iban destinados a cambiar la percepcion que el pueblo tenia de su nacionalidad: "we were attempting to make him [the peasant] conscious of his history, awakening in him a feeling for true 'Spanishness' --and Spanishness, properly conceived, means no less and no more than an awareness of the ideals and aspirations of the Spanish people."(3) (7) En definitiva, la idea instrumentalista del pasado que tenian los agentes culturales de la Republica iba destinada a cambiar los esquemas de percepcion del pueblo para ponerlos en sintonia con su propia historia, que era la historia del liberalismo.
In 1933 the republican government transferred the museum to San Gregorio and, in an move calculated to extol the 'Spanishness' of the collection, dignified it with the title National Museum of Sculpture.
I'm not, because I'm from that area; for these kids, they don't understand, the Spanishness up there is so different from the borderness ...