As emissions and fuel economy are collectively influenced by the engine combustion system design, spark-ignition
engines have been covered in multiple regulatory frameworks across global regions.
Their topics include compression-ignition and spark-ignition
engines, on-board diagnostics and vehicle control modules, diagnosing with an oscilloscope, electronic fuel-injection output devices, and supercharging and turbocharging.
Chai, 2012" A Computer-Based Air-Fuel Model for Analyzing the Performance of Spark-Ignition
Internal Combustion Engines." International Conference on MechanicalAutomobile and Robotics Engineering Penang.
The model is equipped with an inline three-cylinder spark-ignition
engine with gasoline direct injection, exhaust turbocharger with indirect intercooler, four valves per cylinder and a double overhead camshaft.
The reality of trying to burn Jet A--essentially a high-quality kerosene--in a spark-ignition
piston engine was detailed in a March 1988 NASA technical paper:
Through advanced high pressure diesel ignition technology--using trace amounts of diesel to ignite the natural gas--Volvo's LNG engine will deliver a 30 percent fuel efficiency improvement compared with spark-ignition
(SI) engines, making it a viable alternative for demanding long-haul applications.
The report addresses such matters as fundamentals of fuel consumption, spark-ignition
gasoline engines, hybrid power trains, non-engine technologies, and applying vehicle technologies to vehicle classes.
When excessive, diesel knock results in the propagation of high amplitude pressure waves at frequencies governed by combustion chamber resonance and as is the case with spark-ignition
knock, can be extremely detrimental to engine life [2, 3].
Dr Tom Shenton, Reader in Engineering at the University, said: "The key to reducing emissions in the spark-ignition
engine is improved control and for the last one hundred years the primary means of ignition control has been the spark plug.