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the largest all-Union voluntary sports society of trade unions in the USSR. Spartak includes industrial and nonindustrial workers in state trade, light industry, the food-processing industry, civil aviation, automotive transportation, education, culture, public health, and other fields, as well as members of producers’ cooperatives. Based on physical-culture groups that had been formed in 1925 and 1926 at artels of producers’ cooperatives, it was established as an all-Union physical-culture and sports society of producers’ cooperatives on Apr. 19, 1935, and was reorganized in 1960 as a voluntary sports society of trade unions.

Important figures in the development of Soviet sports from the 1930’s to the 1950’s included such Spartak athletes as Ia. Iu. Spar-re, G. I. Popov, and S. A. Ambartsumian (weight lifting), N. F. Korolev, N. V. Shtein, and I. I. Ganykin (boxing), I. Ia. Anika-nov (speed skating), S. P. Boichenko (swimming), S. I. Znamen-skii and G. I. Znamenskii (track and field), Al. P. Starostin, An. P. Starostin, and N. P. Starostin (soccer), V. M. Abalakov (mountaineering), and N. N. Ozerov (tennis).

Spartak athletes contributed to Soviet victories at major international competitions from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s. Champions and prizewinners at the Olympics and world and European championships have included P. G. Bolotnikov, V. S. Golubnichii, and N. V. Chizhova (track and field), A. V. Aza-rian and G. A. Shaginian (gymnastics), T. V. Petrosian (chess), A. A. Seredina (rowing), B. N. Lagutin (boxing), V. M. Igume-nov and Sh. Sh. Khisamutdinov (wrestling), N. P. Simonian, I. A. Netto, and S. S. Sal’nikov (soccer), B. A. Maiorov, V. I. Starshinov, V. Shadrin, and A. S. Iakushev (ice hockey), A. A. Belov (basketball), L. V. Burda (gymnastics), V. A. Vasin (diving) and M. I. Gusakov and N. I. Gusakov (skiing).

In 1975, Spartak comprised more than 23,000 physical-culture groups, including approximately 100 sports clubs, with a total of more than 6.2 million members. The work of the society is done primarily by unpaid volunteers, including more than 750,000 coaches and instructors and more than 500,000 referees in different sports. Between 1972 and 1974, 2,500 masters of sport and international class masters of sport were trained. Gold medals won by Spartak athletes included 13 at the Olympics, 40 at world championships, 98 at European championships, and 309 at USSR championships. The title of Honored Master of Sport has been awarded to 212 Spartak members, and that of Honored Coach of the USSR to 105.

The Moscow Spartak soccer team has won nine championships and has held the USSR cup nine times. The Spartak women’s handball team from Kiev has won six USSR championships and three play-offs for the European Champion Clubs. The Spartak ice hockey team of Moscow has won the USSR championship four times and the USSR Cup two times. The women’s basketball team of Leningrad won the USSR championship in 1974 and the play-offs for the European championship cup in competitions of national cup-holders from 1972 to 1975. The men’s Leningrad Spartak basketball team has won prizes at the USSR championships, as well as the national championship in 1975.

Spartak athletes participated in more than 40 sports in 1975. As of that year, Spartak had 238 stadiums, 89 swimming pools, approximately 1,800 gymnasiums, and more than 1,300 soccer fields. It had 2,600 health and sports schools for children (with more than 75,000 children) and 73 specialized sports schools for young people (with 22,000 students).

Spartak was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1937. More than 250 of the society’s members have been given government awards for their sports achievements.


References in periodicals archive ?
Spartak Moscow's black players insist there is no racism at the club despite a video of them training in Dubai appeared under the message "chocolates melting in the sun" on the Russian side's official Twitter account.
Spartak Moscow found themselves at the centre of a racism storm on Saturday after a shocking tweet from the club's official social media channel.
Russian club Spartak Moscow have sparked anger on social media after a racially insensitive tweet involving a number of their black players.
Soccer Football - Champions League - Liverpool vs Spartak Moscow - Anfield, Liverpool, Britain - December 6, 2017 Liverpool's Philippe Coutinho celebrates scoring their second goal with team mates Action Images via Reuters/Carl Recine CAIRO -- 7 December 2017: Liverpool defeated Spartak Moscow 7-0 on Wednesday night at the UEFA Champions League.
LIVERPOOL will make an official complaint to UEFA after Rhian Brewster was allegedly racially abused by a Spartak Moscow player during Wednesday's UEFA Youth League clash between the clubs.
Liverpool a assure sa qualification en tete du groupe E en atomisant le Spartak Moscou sur le score sans appel de 7 a 0, mercredi lors de la 6e et derniere journee de la phase de groupes de la Ligue des champions d'Europe de football.
CSKA have won their last six matches against Spartak, scoring ten goals in the two away games in that sequence.
A combination of Emre Can losing possession, Coutinho giving away a free-kick and unconvincing goalkeeping from Loris Karius allowed Spartak to take the lead and no amount of pressure from Liverpool could break the hosts' resistance.
Liverpool wasted a string of chances and needed a first-half equaliser from Philippe Coutinho to secure a 1-1 draw with Spartak Moscow in the Champions League on Tuesday.
He was set to be announced as a replacement for Valery Karpin at Spartak Moscow last month, but talks broke down at the last minute.
Aiden McGeady makes his Everton debut at West Brom tomorrow after signing from Spartak Moscow in a four-and-ahalf-year deal.
Tottenham Hotspur and Newcastle United's hopes of securing a deal for Belgian international Toby Alderweireld have been boosted after Spartak Moscow pulled out of negotiations with Ajax for the centre half.