hoplite

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hoplite

(hŏp`līt), heavy infantryinfantry,
body of soldiers who fight in an army on foot and are equipped with hand-carried weapons, in contradistinction originally to cavalry and other branches of an army.
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 soldier in the armies of classical Greece. Hoplites were usually protected by helmets, cuirasses, and leg armor. They carried large shields, javelins, heavy swords, and sometimes battle-axes and fought in the tightly organized phalanxphalanx,
ancient Greek formation of infantry. The soldiers were arrayed in rows (8 or 16), with arms at the ready, making a solid block that could sweep bristling through the more dispersed ranks of the enemy.
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 formation. In classical Greece, hoplites were often citizens of city-states, who paid for their weaponry as a duty of citizenship. Among the most famous hoplites was SocratesSocrates
, 469–399 B.C., Greek philosopher of Athens. Famous for his view of philosophy as a pursuit proper and necessary to all intelligent men, he is one of the great examples of a man who lived by his principles even though they ultimately cost him his life.
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, who fought for Athens during the Peloponnesian WarPeloponnesian War
, 431–404 B.C., decisive struggle in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta. It ruined Athens, at least for a time. The rivalry between Athens' maritime domain and Sparta's land empire was of long standing. Athens under Pericles (from 445 B.C.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The walls of Athens protected the city from the vaunted Spartan hoplites, just as the seas and Athenian triremes protected Athens's allies.
Nevertheless, the surrender of Spartan hoplites in such number was unheard of to that point, and certainly flies in the face of the vaunted reputation of Spartan hoplites, epitomized by their performance in the battle of Thermopylae in 480.
This defeat resulted in the stranding of a large group of Spartan hoplites on the island of Sphakteria, where they had been stationed before the battle.
The Spartans were routed in a major sea battle (4.14); and 440 Spartan hoplites, landed on Sphacteria with the intention of cutting off Demosthenes from a retreat southward, were left stranded on the island.
The son of King Anaxandridas and his successor to the Agiad throne in Sparta after his half-brother Cleomenes I went mad (490); married Cleomenes' daughter Gorgo, and probably adopted Cleomenes' policies; placed in command of a small expeditionary force of 300 Spartan hoplites, he led a force of 6,000-7,000 Greeks north to hold the pass of Thermopylae and so delay Xerxes' invading Persian army (July?
Given these lopsided numbers, the outcome was certain, notwithstanding the Spartan hoplites' individual superiority over the assailants.