spasm

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Related to Spasms: Infantile spasms

spasm,

involuntary rigid muscle contraction, often persistent and often accompanied by pain. It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. The spasm may be confined to one group of muscles or it may be severe and fairly generalized, as in convulsionsconvulsion,
sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of the muscles of the body, often accompanied by loss of consciousness. It is not known what causes the abnormal impulses from the brain that result in convulsive seizures, since the disturbance may arise in normal brain
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. Painless localized spasms are called tics. These purposeless movements, usually of some part of the face, may begin as purposeful movement in response to some stimulus but eventually are carried out automatically, apparently without reason. They may disappear spontaneously after a time, or may require the elimination of some physical or psychic cause.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Spasm

 

an involuntary tonic contraction (cramp) of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may affect striated skeletal muscles (for example, with certain paralyses) or smooth muscles. Subject to spasms are the smooth muscles of the vascular wall (for instance, during angina pectoris), the bronchi, the esophagus (cardiospasm), and the intestine. Skeletal-muscle spasms make movement difficult, and smooth-muscle spasms disrupt various functions of organs.


Spasm

 

a sudden involuntary muscular contraction marked by extreme tension. Two types of spasms are distinguished: tonic and clonic. In tonic spasm, the tension persists for a long time, and in clonic spasm, there are synchronous jerking muscular contractions, which may be diffuse or limited. Spasms of different muscle groups are designated by specific terms, for example, trismus (spasm of the masticatory muscles) and blepharospasm (spasm of the ring muscle of the eye). Clonic spasms of the entire body are sometimes called convulsions.

Spasm may arise spontaneously or as a reaction to external influences, for example, spasm of the gastrocnemius muscles after chilling in water. It may also result from internal influences, for example, tension of the abdominal muscles in peritonitis. Spasm may be a manifestation of epilepsy, eclampsia, spasmophilia, inflammation, brain tumor and trauma, and many other disorders. In addition to spasm of striated muscles, there is spasm of smooth muscles, for example, cardiospasm and pylorospasm. In children, spasm is most common at a very early age, owing to the structure and functioning of the brain at this stage of life; it results from infection, poisoning, trauma, and various psychogenic factors.

Spasm is treated by caring for the underlying disorder and by administering such anticonvulsants as phenobarbital, primidone, and diphenylhydantoin. The affected person should get sufficient sleep and should abstain from alcohol.

V. A. KARLOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

spasm

[′spaz·əm]
(medicine)
An involuntary and abnormal contraction of isolated bundles of muscle or groups of muscles resulting from a chemical imbalance due to fatigue, ischemia, or trauma.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

spasm

an involuntary muscular contraction, esp one resulting in cramp or convulsion
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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"The cost of taking care of children with infantile spasms has increased over the study period 2004-2014," Dr.
The approach by Flex Pharma offers a potential important advantage as the drug candidate may reduce cramps and spasms without the sedating side effects of many current therapies.'
An acute coronary angiography revealed severe coronary spasms in the left main coronary artery (LMCA), circumflex (Cx), and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) (Figure 1, Supplementary Movie 1) (see Supplementary Material available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/ 2016/1863869).
Any advice about the spasms would be greatly appreciated.
When the intense spasms quickly spread throughout her body she was diagnosed with Sti Person Syndrome drome - a rare auto-immune disease - a rare auto-immune disease aecting one in a million.
By the final round, Woods dropped to his knees after one shot on the back nine from what he said were back spasms, which he said were unrelated to the tightness in his back two weeks earlier at the US PGA Championship.
03 ( ANI ): American professional golfer Tiger Woods reportedly withdrew from the Honda Classic in the middle of the final round citing lower back injury and spasms as the reason for his leaving.
As mentioned in the introduction of the article, the three main characteristics of West syndrome include :1) infantile spasms, 2) regression and retardation in psychomotor development and 3) appearance of hypsarryhtmia on electroencephalogram.
Kim Adam's white rhea called Hamish - an ostrichlike bird - panicked so much his body went into spasms and he had to be put down.
Amitabh Bachchan, who recently suffered painful spasms in his back is on the road to recovery, according to a report in the Times of India.
Ray etal conducted study on Surgical Outcome and Improvement in Quality of Life after Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasms, had success rate of 90%, 28 determined by complete res-olution of symptoms .
Sativex, in the form of a mouth spray, contains the principal extracts - dronabinol and cannabidiol - found in the leaf and flower of the cannabis plant, and is the first cannabinoid preparation to be licensed for use in the treatment of muscle spasms in MS.