Seasonal variation in the mean diameter of oocyte in the most advanced vitellogenic stage in females in the spawning
capable reproductive phase
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that offspring quality declines with successive spawning
, given the potentially antagonistic relationship between reproduction and somatic growth in a freshwater caridean shrimp with direct development.
The data set for the statistical analyses contained information on 451 females and estimated the spawning
probability (presence or absence of spawning
), multiple spawning
(females with more than one spawning
) and spawning
frequency (number of spawning
obtained per female during the evaluation period).
"While reproductive success during split spawning
may be lower than usual because it can lead to reduced fertilisation, we found that the release of eggs in two separate smaller events gives the corals a second and improved chance of finding a new home reef."
Large variance in GI in a given month was taken as evidence of spawning
season because it suggests that both gravid (high GI) and recently spawned (low GI) individuals were present at that time point.
Specifically, we evaluated differences in spawning
seasonality, batch fecundity, and spawning
interval across time.
In the western Caribbean, fishers from Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras traditionally harvest spawning
aggregations of groupers (Epinephelidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) over high relief areas of the fore reef (Craig, 1966; Castro-Perez et al., 2011; Heyman & Granados-Dieseldorff, 2012).
Studies using visual observation of reproductive interactions can be limited because (a) instream conditions do not always allow for visual observation, (b) reproductive interactions vary spatially with changing instream conditions determining interaction outcomes (Peoples and Frimpong, 2016), and (c) interactions vary temporally, with different associate species participating (and perhaps performing different functions) throughout the spawning
season or at night when observations are difficult to make (Maurakis and Woolcott, 1996).
Female spottail darters do not participate in egg defense, but leave the nest site immediately after spawning
. It is not known whether females spawn multiple times during a breeding season (fractional spawning
) or just once.
and spent ovaries were found in the months of April and May and to some extent in October and November.
Gambusia nobilis occur at high densities in their native habitat and commonly aggregate around spawning
pupfish pairs, suggesting that they might be preying upon newly deposited eggs of C.
Key words: aquarium, behavior, egg mass, fertilization, Lingcod, milt, Ophiodon elongatus, spawning