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Related to Spermatophyta: Gymnospermae, Angiosperms



higher (vascular) plants that form seeds. The plants comprise the Gymnospermae (including many fossil groups, such as Lyginopteridopsida, Bennettitales, and Cordai-tales) and Angiospermae. Other higher plants, for example, Rhyniophyta, Bryophyta, Lycopodiales, Psilophyta, Equiseta-ceae, and Polypodiophyta, do not form seeds.

In Spermatophyta the gametophyte, that is, the sexual generation, is reduced, especially in angiosperms, and develops on the sporophyte. Reproduction by seeds is progressive adaptation in comparison with reproduction only by spores. Spermatophyta evolved from spore plants; this is indicated by homology between organs of reproduction in Spermatophyta and vascular spore plants. Spermatophyta play an especially important role in the world’s plant cover and in man’s economic activity. Earlier, when the sexual process had not yet been sufficiently studied, Spermatophyta were called Phanerogamae, in contrast to spore plants, which were known as Cryptogamae.


Takhtadzhian, A. L. Vysshie rasteniia, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Osnovy paleontologii: Golosemennye i pokrytosemennye. Moscow, 1963.
Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen, 30th ed. Jena, 1971.


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The current recommendation of the General Committee, following the opinion of the Committee for Spermatophyta, is that Weberbauerella (Fabaceae) and Weberbaueriella (Asteraceae) are treated as confusable names (Barrie, 2006).
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Orbicules and the ektexine are homologous sporopollenin concretions in Spermatophyta. Pl.
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-1996- Inventario da flora vascular de afloramentos calios de Galicia (Pteridophyta e Spermatophyta)--Cad.
--1971-- Contribution a la connaissance Cytotaxinomique des Spermatophyta du Portugal.
--1977-- Contribution a la connaissance Cytotaxinomique des Spermatophyta du Portugal.
-2001-- Divisiones Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta. In: Izquierdo, I., Martin, J.L., Zurita, N.
Cladistics of the Spermatophyta. Brittonia 42: 197-211.
It is the innermost cell layer of the anther wall in all Spermatophyta and it plays a crucial role in the development of both microspores and orbicules.