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Related to Spermatophyta: Gymnospermae, Angiosperms



higher (vascular) plants that form seeds. The plants comprise the Gymnospermae (including many fossil groups, such as Lyginopteridopsida, Bennettitales, and Cordai-tales) and Angiospermae. Other higher plants, for example, Rhyniophyta, Bryophyta, Lycopodiales, Psilophyta, Equiseta-ceae, and Polypodiophyta, do not form seeds.

In Spermatophyta the gametophyte, that is, the sexual generation, is reduced, especially in angiosperms, and develops on the sporophyte. Reproduction by seeds is progressive adaptation in comparison with reproduction only by spores. Spermatophyta evolved from spore plants; this is indicated by homology between organs of reproduction in Spermatophyta and vascular spore plants. Spermatophyta play an especially important role in the world’s plant cover and in man’s economic activity. Earlier, when the sexual process had not yet been sufficiently studied, Spermatophyta were called Phanerogamae, in contrast to spore plants, which were known as Cryptogamae.


Takhtadzhian, A. L. Vysshie rasteniia, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Osnovy paleontologii: Golosemennye i pokrytosemennye. Moscow, 1963.
Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen, 30th ed. Jena, 1971.


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Flora Malesiana Series 1: Spermatophyta (flowering plants) 9:25 1--552.
Os nomes das familias estao apresentados segundo o APG III (2009), sendo a grafia das especies e nomes dos autores conferidos atraves da base de dados da Lista de Especies da Florado Brasil (2013) e do checklist das Spermatophyta do Estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil (WANDERLEY et al.
The current recommendation of the General Committee, following the opinion of the Committee for Spermatophyta, is that Weberbauerella (Fabaceae) and Weberbaueriella (Asteraceae) are treated as confusable names (Barrie, 2006).
Species Division Class 1 Capparis cartilaginea Spermatophyta Angiospermae a e 2 Capparis sinaica 3 Dipterygium glaucum 4 Farsetia longisiliqua 5 Citrullus colocynthis 6 Peganum harmala 7 Haplophyllum tuberculatum 8 Spergula falax 9 Robbairea deliliana 10 Hammada elegans 11 Acacia tortilis 12 Casia italica 13 Alhagi maurorum 14 Astragalus annularis 15 Tephrosia apollinea 16 Rhaziz stricta 17 Calotropis procera 18 Convolovulus desertii 19 Heliotropium supinum 20 Heliotropium digynum 21 Achillea santolina 22 Echinops spinosissimus 23 Francoeuria crispa 24 Setaria verticillata 25 Juncus rigidus No.
Orbicules and the ektexine are homologous sporopollenin concretions in Spermatophyta.