Prior to the surgery, endoanal ultrasonography (EAUS) was performed to measure the degree of sphincter
Anatomically, in women, the perineal body separates the anal canal from the urogenital diaphragm in the median plane where the deep bulbospongiosus and superficial transverse perineal muscles meet the external anal sphincter
Clinically detectable anal sphincter
injuries occur in about 0.4-19% of vaginal deliveries.
* Exposure of horizontal fibres of the internal anal sphincter
For low fistulas involving <one-third of the sphincters
, primary fistulotomy can be performed safely.
Alternatively, Allis clamps can be placed on the ends of the retracted internal anal sphincter
to facilitate repair.
Several factors have been associated with persistent incontinence after MUS, including high preoperative pad weight, poor external sphincter
coaptation on cystoscopy, and prior pelvic radiation or urethral surgery.
The following data were extracted: sphincter
injury details, suture choice, repair technique, and details of surgeons performing the repair.
Obstetric Anal Sphincter
injuries (OASI) occur in 0.5-9% of vaginal births.1 Women who have sustained OASI are more likely to suffer from faecal incontinence2 and OASI are responsible for significant physical, sexual and psychological sequelae.3 Women who have sustained OASI require more accurate, up to date information on the likelihood of developing faecal, urinary and sexual symptoms following primary repair.4 Therefore, accurate recognition and repair of anal laceration are of paramount importance in obstetric care.
This can be achieved by bypassing the sphincter
, using an indwelling urethral or suprapubic catheter or creating a stoma.
There are numerous sphincters
in the human body, including those that control the release of urine and faeces.
Far more frequently diagnosed non-neurogenic conditions include a weak internal urethral sphincter
, bladder inflammation (cystitis); the formation of stones in the urinary tract (urolithiasis); and the development of benign or cancerous growths (neoplasms) in the tissue lining the bladder.