Sphingosine


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Related to Sphingosine: cerebroside, ceramide, sphingomyelin

sphingosine

[′sfiŋ·gə‚sēn]
(biochemistry)
C18H37O2N A moiety of sphingomyelin, cerebrosides, and certain other phosphatides.

Sphingosine

 

an unsaturated higher aliphatic amino alcohol, C13H27CH=CHCH(OH)CH(NH2)CH2OH. Sphingosine is soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water; its melting point is 81.5°–83°C, and its properties are those of a base. Sphingosine occurs in nature as a constituent of sphingolipids. Its biosynthesis in cells is effected from the amino acid serine and palmitic acid with the participation of coenzyme A. Sphingosine exhibits an anticoagulant effect since it inhibits the conversion of prothrom-bin to thrombin. The more than 60 analogues of sphingosine— sphingosine bases—are distinguished by the length of the aliphatic chain, the degree of nonsaturation, the type of branching, and the location of the double bond.

References in periodicals archive ?
Lee et al., "Sphingosine 1-phosphate induces angiogenesis: its angiogenic action and signaling mechanism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells," Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.
Pyne, "Translational aspects of sphingosine 1phosphate biology," Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol.
As mentioned above, all sphingolipids are metabolically interconnected; therefore, CerS generated by the a-SMase are subsequently degraded by the ceramidase to sphingosine which can be phosphorylated to S1P that subsequently can activate different receptors.
The sphingosine pathway is a key cellular signaling pathway implicated in various cancers and functions of the immune system.
FRIDAY, March 23, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- For patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, the selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor1,5 modulator, siponimod, is associated with reduced relative risk of confirmed disability progression, according to a study published online March 22 in The Lancet.
BS, including sphingosine (SP) and sphingosine-1phosphate (S1P)[9, a biologically important class of compounds, have essential functions including regulation of cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis as well as inflammation and angiogenesis [10].
Zhou et al., "Conjugated bile acids promote cholangiocarcinoma cell invasive growth through activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2," Hepatology, vol.
There are several ways to generate ceramide in mammalian cells (Figure 1): hydrolysis of sphingomyelin, de novo synthesis from palmitoyl-CoA and serine, catabolism of glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide, synthesis from sphingosine and fatty acid, and dephosphorylation of ceramide-1-phosphate.
Briefly, [3-[sup.3]H]-sphingosine (D-erythro > 97%, 50 [micro]Ci, 1.85 MBq, PerkinElmer) was dissolved in DMEM-low glucose with 10% FBS to a final concentration of 2.4 nM sphingosine, corresponding to 110.000 dpm/ml radioactivity.
The compounds, sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine, were found to be at significantly lower concentrations in blood samples from multiple sclerosis patients.

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