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(spinach), a genus of herbaceous annual or biennial plants of the family Chenopodiaceae. There are three species in Europe, Asia, and North America. The garden spinach (S. oleraceae) is cultivated in regions having a temperate climate. In the USSR it is raised in southern parts of the European portion, in the Caucasus, and in Middle Asia.

The spinach plant is 25–50 cm tall. At the beginning of vegetation, it yields a rosette of leaves, which are used as food at this stage. The plant later produces a flowering stalk. The leaves are triangularly hastate or elongate-oval and range from smooth to crimped. Male plants have less foliage and form the stalk earlier than female plants. The male flowers are gathered into panicled inflorescences, and the female ones are located in the leaf axils. Spinach is a relatively cold-resistant early-ripening plant. The seeds sprout at 4°C. They are sown in open ground at the rate of 30–50 kg per hectare (ha). Sowing may be repeated several times a summer. The yield is 150–300 quintals per ha. To make maximum use of the planting area in greenhouses and hotbeds, spinach is planted in the interrows of crops that grow slowly during the beginning of the vegetative period. Spinach leaves are rich in proteins and carbohydrates; they also contain vitamin C, B-com-plex vitamins, carotene, and salts of iron and phosphorus. Spinach is used widely in cooking, canning, and the production of juice.


Markov, V. M. Ovoshchevodstvo. Moscow, 1966.
Spravochnik po ovoshchevodstvu. Edited by V. A. Bryzgalov. Leningrad, 1971.
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Data (Table 4) indicated that sample treatment caused significant (p [less than or equal to] 0.05) difference in zinc content in Hibiscus escolentus (upright and exotic), Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus caudatus while Corchorius olitorus, Bidens pilosa, Solanum nigrum, Momordica involucrata, Spinacia oleracea and Brassica oleracea did not vary significantly (p [less than or equal to] 0.05).
Effect of sowing dates and row spacing on the yield of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.).
Spinacia oleracea plant extracts had the highest percentage (21.6), followed by S.
Spinacia oleracea leaves extracted with a methanol-water mixture in the present study showed the presence of 14 flavonoids, 10 phenolic acids, and 13 total antioxidants in multiple HPTLC runs, confirming a high content of antioxidants in it.
Spinacia oleracea Modulates Radiation-Induced Biochemical Changes in Mice Testis.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is one of the most important edible leafy vegetable crops of the family Amranthaceae.
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The highest value of MTF was found for Portulaca oleracae followed by Spinacia oleracae L., Allium cepa, Malva neglecta, Lactuca sativa, Solanum tuberosum, Coriandum sativum, Pisum sativum, Lycopersicum esculan:, Phaseolus vulgaris, Hebiscus esculantus, B.oleracae capitita, Daucus carota, B.