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(spinach), a genus of herbaceous annual or biennial plants of the family Chenopodiaceae. There are three species in Europe, Asia, and North America. The garden spinach (S. oleraceae) is cultivated in regions having a temperate climate. In the USSR it is raised in southern parts of the European portion, in the Caucasus, and in Middle Asia.

The spinach plant is 25–50 cm tall. At the beginning of vegetation, it yields a rosette of leaves, which are used as food at this stage. The plant later produces a flowering stalk. The leaves are triangularly hastate or elongate-oval and range from smooth to crimped. Male plants have less foliage and form the stalk earlier than female plants. The male flowers are gathered into panicled inflorescences, and the female ones are located in the leaf axils. Spinach is a relatively cold-resistant early-ripening plant. The seeds sprout at 4°C. They are sown in open ground at the rate of 30–50 kg per hectare (ha). Sowing may be repeated several times a summer. The yield is 150–300 quintals per ha. To make maximum use of the planting area in greenhouses and hotbeds, spinach is planted in the interrows of crops that grow slowly during the beginning of the vegetative period. Spinach leaves are rich in proteins and carbohydrates; they also contain vitamin C, B-com-plex vitamins, carotene, and salts of iron and phosphorus. Spinach is used widely in cooking, canning, and the production of juice.


Markov, V. M. Ovoshchevodstvo. Moscow, 1966.
Spravochnik po ovoshchevodstvu. Edited by V. A. Bryzgalov. Leningrad, 1971.
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Possible anti-tumor promoters have also been reported in Spinacia oleracea (Wang et al.
Actividad similar fue detectada en Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Chlorella fusca, Spinacia oleracea y varias Fusobacterium sp.
Arabidopsis thaliana, Spinacia oleracea) in the database had somewhat lower similarity, with 51%-68% identity and 72%-81% positives with the squid protein.
In dioecious, cultivated spinach, Spinacia oleracca, the presence or absence of reproductive organs is determined by organ primordia initiation rather than by degeneration of organ primordia as in maize, sorrel, and campion.
Kinetic parameters of rubisco used in the present calculations were obtained with rubisco purified from leaves of Spinacia oleracea L.
Three of the polymorphic DraI fragments were found to hybridize to the psbD probe representing an internal fragment of the psbD gene from Spinacia oleracea (Alt et al.
Upasani, "Protective effect of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea leaves in experimental paradigms of inflammatory bowel disease," Inflammopharmacology, vol.
Obrador A, Gonzalez D, Alvarez JM (2013) Effect of inorganic and organic copper fertilizers on copper nutrition in Spinacia oleracea and on labile copper in soil.
Cresta de Cristata gallo, mano de oso Spinacia oleracea Espinaca Amaryllidaceae Allium cepa Cebolleta X Allium fistulosum Cebolla X Allium sativum Ajo X Anacardiaceae Mangfera indica Mango Annonaceae Unonopsis sp.