Doing so allowed them to reduce the number of spines
on Pufferfish, as well as loosen the restriction on where the spines
appear on the Pufferfish.
The authors of this article believe that it is more appropriate to use the name 'infratemporal spine
' because of its position (located on the edge of the infratemporal region) and also its shape, which, in this sample, shows structures similar to bony spines
with sharp edges (pyramidal and spiniform laminar).
This "text neck" tendency if uncorrected can lead to frequent neck, head and back pains or damage to the spine
. It also weakens the respiratory and circulatory systems and induces poor emotional health as well.
Irregular urchins have several morphologically distinct spine
types, depending on where those spines
are located on the urchin test.
The sex, disc width ([W.sub.D]; to the nearest mm), number of caudal spines
, and length of each spine
(to the nearest ram) was determined for each ray.
When validated, the model will enable companies to design and test implants much faster, as small modifications to the device can be tested virtually--forgoing expensive and time-consuming work on cadaver spines
. Already, one bioengineering company working with the Purdue researchers has used the model to speed development of a new device.
Abnormality resulting from an injury on the pectoral spines
in Synodontis species has not been reported.
Anatomically, weak abdominal or tight psoas muscles are indirect contributors; faults in technique, such as extending the pelvis to improve hip turn-out, executing arabesques through the extension of the lumbar spine
, and poor lifting technique in male dancers, may also contribute.
We used a boreal finch, the Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), in experiments to test the effect of spines
on foraging rates, because crossbills forage on seeds in both closed and open cones (Benkman 1987a, b, Benkman and Lindholm 1991).
Tweezing alone removed 76 percent of the spines
. It was also the fastest method, particularly if the spines
were in clumps.
Urobatis halleri, like other stingrays, utilize their spines
in defense against predators and occasionally on humans, who inadvertently step on them (e.g., Gudger 1932, 1946; Campbell 1951; Russell 1953).