Bammesberger, Alfred 1988 "Voice opposition in the system of Old English spirants
", in: Dieter Kastovsky--Gero Bauer (eds.), 119-126.
The exact conditions of the variation can be defined as follows: When Germanie 3 came to stand finally in OE., it is probable that it became a voiceless spirant
(x) just as in Goth.
We will start our survey of the dental suffix variants and our attempt to capture several generalisations with the interdental spirant
At the same time, the second person singular active imperative termination hi is replaced by dhi after the root hu and roots ending in a non-nasal stop or spirant
In Salaca Livonian, the labiodental spirant
v was vocalized in the wordfinal position after the late apocope, e.g.
He makes no use of 3, [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or o; he rejects ea for the most part, h for the voiced spirant
, and the two rare forms of the word 'through'.
*k- is preserved as a stop before *i, *i; before the other vowels its reflex is the Kurux and Brahui voiceless velar spirant
[x], which is spelled in the published sources as kh, and Malto q, the phonetic value of which is still uncertain" (Emeneau 1962: 62 [1980: 320]).
Such a shift would have been facilitated by the fact that -dh- had already taken on the value of a fricative [[Delta]]; as -t- and -d- both weakened over time towards the spirant
, a difference between the aspirated and unaspirated stop was no longer felt.
But he did not mark those phonetical features that had no direct trace in the text: the vanishing laryngeal h, the difference of spirant
and stop non-aspirated gutturals, etc.
The voiced segment [z] was first relaxed from an obstruent spirant
to an approximant with glide vocalic timbre matching the adjacent syllabic or tending towards yod, with simultaneous residual retroflexion.
As Tolkien and Conlang specialist Helge Fauskanger observes, in his essay "Orkish and the Black Speech: a Base Language for Base Purposes," there is apparently nothing inherent in the language itself that might justify this poor appraisal: "The Black Speech possesses the plosives b, g, d, p, t, k, the spirants
th, gh (and possibly f and kh, attested in Ore-names only), the lateral 1, the vibrant r, the nasals m, n, and the sibilants s, z, sh," observes Fauskanger.
You may hear that the suddenly dense consonantal mesh of glottal stops and terminal spirants
, along with heavy assonance (three soundings each of so-called long "a" and short "e," depending on whether the vowel of "death" had finished its shortening from Chaucer's longer pronunciation by the time it came to Milton's ear, along with perhaps two of the vowel sound in "Rocks" and "Bogs," if he heard them as identical) and the rhyme of "Fens" and "Dens," echo the hideously garbled soundtrack of demonic gasps of despair at this first glimpse of the nether "Universe of death."