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in man and animals, one of a group of diseases caused by pathogenic spirochetes. Spirochetoses differ in their epidemiology and clinical manifestations. Distinctions are made, according to the mechanism of infection, between intestinal, respiratory, blood, and skin spirochetoses. Leptospiroses are among the most common forms of intestinal spirochetoses. Respiratory spirochetoses occur mainly in tropical countries. Blood spirochetoses include different forms of relapsing fever caused by lice and ticks—forms characterized by natural endemism. Skin spirochetoses include yaws, syphilis, and pinta. Spirochetoses also include sodoku and diseases caused by an association of spirochetes and bacteria, for example, Simanovskii-Vincent’s angina and ulcerative stomatitis.
REFERENCESRukovodstvo po tropicheskim bolezniam, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1974.
In birds. Avian spirochetosis is an infectious disease of poultry and wild birds caused by the spirochete Spirochaeta anserinum. The disease is manifested by fever, listlessness, and paresis of the motor organs. The mortality rate is 80 percent. The source of the causative agent is sick birds, and ticks subsequently transmit the infection. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, epizootiologi-cal data, and the bacteriological examination of blood smears. Osarsol and antibiotics are used to treat the disease. Preventive measures include the vaccination of birds and the control of ticks.
Spirochetosis is also found in rabbits.
REFERENCESArtemichev, M. A. “Spirokhetoz.” In Bolezniptits. Moscow, 1962.
Reshetniak, V. Z. Spirokhetoz ptits. Moscow, 1971.