Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Idioms, Wikipedia.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a method of crop irrigation in which water is sprayed over the surface of the soil and on plants. Experiments in sprinkling were conducted in many countries in the 19th century. Sprinkling became industrially important in the early 20th century in Germany (more than 100,000 hectares [ha]), the USA, Italy, and Czechoslovakia. It was first used in Russia (1875) in Saratov Province by the agronomist G. I. Aristov. In 1913 and 1914, on the initiative of A. N. Kostiakov, research on sprinkling was conducted at the Kostychev and Bezenchuk experimental stations. In the USSR the area irrigated by sprinkling (in ha) was 180,000 in 1962, 357,700 in 1964, 760,600 in 1966, and 1,477,000 in 1969. Sprinkling is widespread in Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Czechoslovakia, the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the German Democratic Republic.

Sprinkling has a number of advantages over surface watering. It improves conditions of plant growth, since it increases the moisture, not only of the soil but also of the surface air, by lowering their temperature and evaporation losses from the surface of the soil. Sprinkling washes the dust from plants, which strengthens their respiration, assimilation of carbon, growth, and accumulation of organic matter. After sprinkling, the soil structure is less disturbed and postirrigation work may be begun earlier, as a result of which more moisture is conserved in the soil. Sprinkling makes possible the introduction of fertilizers together with the irrigation water. Sprinkling may be done at any time of day and at any irrigation rate, starting with the lowest (30 m3/ha). Sprinkling makes possible the maintenance of optimum soil moisture for plants on lands with complex terrain, as well as on areas of shallow soil situated on strongly water-permeable rock (sand or gravel), on which surface irrigation requires a great deal of planning or entails significant losses of water through seepage. Sprinkling generally does not require shallow conduits and furrows; therefore, the land area is utilized more fully and the operation of farm machinery is more productive. Sometimes this method of irrigation is economically less profitable than surface methods—for example, during irrigation at high watering rates (more than 700 m3/ha) and with frequent waterings.

Sprinkling is used for growing, freshening, feeding, and warming irrigation and in combating weeds. It is widely used in growing vegetable, industrial, fodder, grain, and fruit and berry crops, especially in zones of fluctuating moistening. Sprinkling is most efficient when used against the background of the fall water supply of the soil. During drought years sprinkling yields large crop increases in the nonchernozem zones and even in the north (for example, near Yakutsk). In the Baltic region, sprinkling is used to irrigate pastures and hayfields. Irrigation rates for sprinkling are generally somewhat lower than for surface watering. Watering rates range from 30 to 600 m3/ha (under favorable conditions, up to 800); watering during the growth and development stage should ensure the moistening of soil beds down to root level.

Sprinkling should be conducted in such a way that the water is equally distributed throughout the field, not forming puddles or causing runoff. The occurrence of runoff depends on the physical and water properties of the soil, the size of the spray drops, the intensity of the spray (the layer of rain in mm per unit time), and the nature of its delivery—constant or periodic (with intervals of 1-8 min and more). High-quality sprinkling may be produced if the diameter of the drops does not exceed 1.5-2.0 mm and if the intensity is less than the actual permeability of the soil. For actual conditions, these amounts are generally determined by experiment.

Rivers, ponds, canals, and other basins and channels are used as sources of water for sprinkling. The transmission network (canals and stationary pipelines) and distributing network (open, closed, or combination) feed water to the plot being irrigated and distribute it inside the plot, carrying it to sprinkling machines and installations. The planned arrangement and design of the transmission and distribution networks for sprinkling have the following features: the shape of the plot being irrigated should be close to rectangular, its width should be a multiple of the range of the sprinkling machine, and its length should not be less than 400-600 m; temporary sprinklers and piping are arranged parallel to one another, and the distance between them should be double the length of the wing of the machine or of the spraying radius (taking into account the area of overlap).


Pospelov, A. M. Dozhdevanie. Moscow, 1952.
Cherkasov, A. A. Melioratsiia i sel’skokhoziaistvennoe vodosnabzhenie, 4th ed. Moscow, 1958.
Kostiakov, A. N. Osnovy melioratsii, 6th ed. Moscow, 1960.
Lebedev, G. V. Impul’snoe dozhdevanie i vodnyi obmen rastenii. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The feature that we have called the sprinkling sign is first noted on low-power examination by virtue of the presence of multiple scattered dark small spots in what appears otherwise to be an unremarkable benign follicular nodule, that is, either a follicular adenoma or a hyperplastic (adenomatoid) nodule depending on the presence or absence of a capsule, respectively.
Log moisture analyses.--Data in Table 3 and Figure 6 show how the MCs of the MPB logs changed after sprinkling and vat conditioning.
High levels of mercury exposure can result from sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume.
However, sprinkling oil in a barn requires more labor and techniques for room cleanup after pigs are removed.
For example, trusts that accumulate income may qualify as S shareholders, as may trusts with multiple beneficiaries and trusts with "sprinkling powers." However, taxpayers need to keep in mind that the trust will be taxed at the highest individual rate.
He stated that they had been keeping a close eye on the environmental aspect of the project and had been regularly sprinkling water so as to reduce the concentration of dust in the air.
New Delhi [India], November 10 ( ANI ): Following a directive by Delhi's Environment Minister Imran Hussain, the Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited on Friday has been assgined to settle down particulate matter (PM) in the national capital region through aerial sprinkling in Delhi.
He informed that 80 percent subsidy would also be provided to farmers for installation of solar system for sprinkling and drip irrigation units.
RAWALPINDI -- Sprinkling system installed for watering the plants in the parks of Rawalpindi has become dysfunctional due to negligence and lack of attention of Parks and Horticulture Agency (PHA).
2 tbsp go sugar, plu sprinkli FO PUD7wgssf Rice pudding and spiced plum bake THIS seasonal twist on rice pudding makes a lovely change to crumble Serves 4 INGREDIENTS 500g/1lb 2oz plums, halved and pitted 1 cinnamon stick juice and zest 1 orange 150ml/-pt sweet sherry 2 tbsp golden caster sugar, plus extra for sprinkling FOR THE RICE PUDDING 700ml/1'pts whole milk 50g /2oz golden caster sugar, plus extra for sprinkling 200g /7oz pudding rice ' nutmeg, grated 170g can evaporated milk knob of butter METHOD 1 Heat oven to 190C/170C fan/gas 5.
IF your pets are making the room smell, then try sprinkling baking soda over the smelly surfaces.
Beef stroganoff with peppercorn-coated steak Serves: 4 Ingredients 500g Waitrose British Rump Steak, sliced thinly into long strips 1tbsp Bart Bristol Blend Five Pepper, lightly crushed 1tsp ground paprika, plus extra for sprinkling 50g unsalted butter 2tsp olive oil 1 large onion, sliced 200g pack button mushrooms 2 tbsp Waitrose French Brandy 142ml pot soured cream Method Place the rump steak in a shallow bowl, sprinkle the peppercorns and paprika over and toss well to coat evenly, then set aside.