Spruce Forests

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Spruce Forests


evergreen forests in which spruces predominate. They are found in Europe, Asia, and North America, both as pure spruce forests and in combination with other coniferous and deciduous varieties.

In the USSR spruce forests cover areas exceeding 80 million hectares. In the European part of the Soviet Union, they are composed of Norway spruce, which is also found in many regions of Western Europe. Spruce forests in the Caucasus are composed of oriental spruce; in the western Urals, Urals, and Siberia of Siberian spruce; in the Far East of Yeddo, Korean, and Sitka spruce; and in Middle Asia of the Schrenk spruce.

The fundamental variant in the Taiga zone is the whortle-berry-spruce forest, with well-developed whortleberry ground cover. Less common is the red bilberry-spruce forest, in which red bilberry predominates in the ground cover, usually in drier locations. Another common type is the spruce-moss forest, with extensive ground cover of glistening mosses. On richer loams and sandy loams spruce-sorrel types appear, in which the ground cover contains oxalis, mayflower, goutweed, and ferns. The most productive types of spruce are found in the subzone of mixed forests and in the southern Taiga, with lindens, oaks, and filberts. In damp and moist terrain spruce forests grow with ground covers of grass, grass and peat moss, long moss, or pure peat moss.


Shimaniuk, A. P. Biologiia drevesnykh i kustarnikovykh porod SSSR, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964. Pages 86–101.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
Dark spruce forest frowned on either side the frozen waterway.
Global warming and rising temperatures are fueling the expansion of spruce bark beetle outbreaks across European Norway Spruce forests, ravaging thousands of square miles of forests.
During the construction, the blueberry spruce forests which are part of the biotope were damaged.
Red squirrels find spruce forests very much to their liking and hereabouts their population has soared, thanks to the increasing presence of another mammal, which also prospers among the conifers, the pine marten.
POSCO filmed the ad at the Stelvio Pass in the Alps, spruce forests in Norway, glacial terrains in the Arctic and icy roads in Siberia.
History and other scholars from Canada and the US discuss how environments were modified to facilitate mobility and the challenges and opportunities people faced, such as the transformation of the Nova Scotian spruce forests into ships and the impact of the shipbuilding industry on Maitland, the use of the Intercolonial Railway, lakeside mobility in the Muskoka region in Ontario, the use of ice roads in northern Saskatchewan, the construction of the St.
The largest mill in the region, Northland Wood, located in Fairbanks, produces high-quality, dried and graded lumber from the region's white spruce forests. A separate Alaska lumber grade stamp was developed and approved for this product, as it was previously lumped in with pine and fir species known at the Spruce/Pine/Fir or SPF grade.
Composition and elevation of spruce forests affect susceptibility to bark beetle attacks: implications for forest management.
Back in Alaska -- known for its spruce forests and freezing winters -- Morton thinks there's also a case for careful translocation.
"Without it, many commercial spruce forests across the country would have been badly affected, killing thousands of trees and reducing returns for the forestry sector," said Mr Saunders.
"According to the analysis, the current proportion of homogeneous spruce forests in the total forest area is 20.3% (pure) and the current share of spruce-dominated forest ecosystems is 10.7% (dominant)" [10, p.