Srebrenica

(redirected from Srebenica)

Srebrenica

(srĕbrĕnēt`sä), town, E central Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Serb Republic of Bosnia Herzegovina. Lead has been mined here and nearby since Roman times, and silver and mercury deposits are in the vicinity. A health spa is on the outskirts of the town and contributes to its economy. Founded in 1387, Srebrenica was a trade center in the 15th cent., largely dealing in ore from the silver mines that dotted the area. Merchants from Ragusa and miners from Germany formed significant segments of the population. The town was taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1440, and its Franciscan monastery turned into a mosque; the population slowly converted to Islam.

During the 1990s Bosnian civil war, Srebrenica, the population of which was roughly two thirds Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) and one third Serb, was isolated from the main area controlled by the Bosnian government. In 1993, it and surrounding territory was designated (1993) a "safe area" by the United Nations, and several hundred Dutch UN peacekeeping forces were dispatched to secure the area; Bosniaks there remained armed while the United Nations sought to demilitarize both sides. In 1995, Serb forces shelled and besieged the safe area, which the outnumbered and poorly supported Dutch forces failed to defend, and it was taken by the Serbs. After the siege, roughly 5,000 Bosniaks were expelled from the Dutch base, 15,000 Bosniak soldiers and other men attempted to flee through the mountains (many were hunted down and killed), and some 23,000 Bosniak women and children were deported while the remaining men and older boys were separated out, held, and mostly later killed. In all, some 8,000 men and boys were murdered by Serb troops and buried in mass graves, and many women were raped. The Srebrenica massacre is believed to be Europe's worst mass murder since the HolocaustHolocaust
, name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust.
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.

In 2001 the UN-sponsored International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia termed the attack genocide, and indicted and tried a number of Serb leaders. Slobodan MiloševićMilošević, Slobodan
, 1941–2006, Yugoslav and Serbian political leader, president of Serbia (1989–97) and of Yugoslavia (1997–2000), b. Požarevac, Serbia.
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 died (2006) while on trial, but other former high-ranking Bosnian Serbs were convicted in 2010, 2011, and 2012 for their roles in the massacre. That year the Serbian parliament officially condemned (and apologized for failing to prevent) the killings of Bosnians in Srebrenica, but did not admit to genocide. In 2002 the Dutch government took partial responsibility for the massacre because of the role played by Dutch peacekeepers. The Dutch state was later (2014) found liable in the deaths of some 300 men who were taken from the Dutch forces compound in the town, but not for the vast majority of those massacred, who were killed after they had fled.

Bibliography

See J. W. Honig and N. Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime and D. Rohde, Endgame: The Betrayal and Fall of Srebrenica (both: 1997).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Berber's self-expressive works are inspired mainly by his journey through the fairytale and mystical landscapes of Bosnia, its Ottoman past and the dark and terrible pits of Srebenica. The artist regarded the tragedy at Srebrenica as the 'unending tragedy of human life' and worked hard for years to depict it in his works.
Abi says: "Before I set up my forensic consultancy firm in Cardiff, I worked on some of the forensic evidence from the primary and secondary mass graves near Srebenica, hence by dedication to the charity, Remembering Screbenica.
European Parliament Vice-President Ulrike Lunacek will represent the EP at a commemoration ceremony in Srebenica on 11 July.
Speaking at the service, the Lord Mayor said it was also important to remember victims of other atrocities, including the massacre at Srebenica, which took place 20 years ago.
(143) On the general pattern argument, the Court held that, given only Krstic and Blagojevic, and no other ICTY case, had found genocide had occurred in Srebenica, the general pattern of facts did not establish an intent for genocide.
In July, Carla Del Ponte accused the Serbian government of not collaborating on the delivering to the ICTY of three war criminals: Karadzic (leader of Serbs in Bosnia), Mladic (responsible of the Srebenica massacre in Bosnia) and Hadzic (author of many cases of ethnic cleansing in Croatia).
(60) At the time, Sarajevo had a population of around 380,000 civilians and IDPs; Tuzla, 250,000; Bihac, 205,000; and Gorazde, Zepa, and Srebenica, 104,000 combined--for a total of almost a million people within the safe areas.
(11) To answer that question the chapter employs the methods of empirical political science, analysing the distinct patterns of refugee returns in two municipalities that were the site of egregious human rights violations during the disintegration of the Former Yugoslavia (specially Prijedor and Srebenica).
In April 1993, the Security Council demanded that the town of Srebenica, filled with 60,000 Muslim refugees and encircled by Bosnian Serb forces, become a "safe area ...
Pressure has also mounted for the UN to overcome what Le Roy acknowledges were three major peacekeeping failures of the 1990s - at Srebenica in Bosnia, the Rwanda genocide and in Somalia - when troops could not or would not act.
Others suggest that Mladic be tried with Radovan Karadzic on the Srebenica charges.