Srebrenica


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Srebrenica

(srĕbrĕnēt`sä), town, E central Bosnia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Serb Republic of Bosnia Herzegovina. Lead has been mined here and nearby since Roman times, and silver and mercury deposits are in the vicinity. A health spa is on the outskirts of the town and contributes to its economy. Founded in 1387, Srebrenica was a trade center in the 15th cent., largely dealing in ore from the silver mines that dotted the area. Merchants from Ragusa and miners from Germany formed significant segments of the population. The town was taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1440, and its Franciscan monastery turned into a mosque; the population slowly converted to Islam.

During the 1990s Bosnian civil war, Srebrenica, the population of which was roughly two thirds Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) and one third Serb, was isolated from the main area controlled by the Bosnian government. In 1993, it and surrounding territory was designated (1993) a "safe area" by the United Nations, and several hundred Dutch UN peacekeeping forces were dispatched to secure the area; Bosniaks there remained armed while the United Nations sought to demilitarize both sides. In 1995, Serb forces shelled and besieged the safe area, which the outnumbered and poorly supported Dutch forces failed to defend, and it was taken by the Serbs. After the siege, roughly 5,000 Bosniaks were expelled from the Dutch base, 15,000 Bosniak soldiers and other men attempted to flee through the mountains (many were hunted down and killed), and some 23,000 Bosniak women and children were deported while the remaining men and older boys were separated out, held, and mostly later killed. In all, some 8,000 men and boys were murdered by Serb troops and buried in mass graves, and many women were raped. The Srebrenica massacre is believed to be Europe's worst mass murder since the HolocaustHolocaust
, name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust.
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.

In 2001 the UN-sponsored International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia termed the attack genocide, and indicted and tried a number of Serb leaders. Slobodan MiloševićMilošević, Slobodan
, 1941–2006, Yugoslav and Serbian political leader, president of Serbia (1989–97) and of Yugoslavia (1997–2000), b. Požarevac, Serbia.
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 died (2006) while on trial, but other former high-ranking Bosnian Serbs were convicted in 2010, 2011, and 2012 for their roles in the massacre. That year the Serbian parliament officially condemned (and apologized for failing to prevent) the killings of Bosnians in Srebrenica, but did not admit to genocide. In 2002 the Dutch government took partial responsibility for the massacre because of the role played by Dutch peacekeepers. The Dutch state was later (2014) found liable in the deaths of some 300 men who were taken from the Dutch forces compound in the town, but not for the vast majority of those massacred, who were killed after they had fled.

Bibliography

See J. W. Honig and N. Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime and D. Rohde, Endgame: The Betrayal and Fall of Srebrenica (both: 1997).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Austrian Institute of Technology and the Institute for Structural Development will present a Master Plan "Srebrenica Drina Euro - Region and Srebrenica Euro - European City of Culture 2024".
Fiona Malcolm visited Eastern Europe with Remembering Srebrenica Scotland, which is headed by Rt Rev Dr Lorna Hood, former minister of Renfrew North Parish Church, to shine a light on the atrocity - the worst on European soil since World War Two.
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Ratko Mladic, the former leader of Bosnian Serbs and a military commander was sentenced to life in prison after the UN war crimes tribunal found him guilty of the involvement in the Srebrenica massacre and committing crimes against humanity.
BOSNIA'S war crimes court has acquitted the wartime commander of Srebrenica, who was accused of committing atrocities against Serb prisoners during the 1992-95 Balkan conflict.
Naser Oric, the Bosnian Muslim commander who led the defence of Srebrenica during the 1992-95 war, was cleared of war crimes against Serbs on Monday, a ruling that is set to exacerbate ethnic divisions two decades after the conflict.
TAP) - Naser Oric, the Bosnian Muslim commander who led the defence of Srebrenica during the 1992-95 war, cleared of war crimes against Serbs on Monday, a ruling that is set to exacerbate ethnic divisions two decades after the conflict.
Twenty-two years after the Srebrenica Genocide, it is essential to uphold a transparent and truthful narrative of what happened, and to continue efforts -- regardless of the time that has passed -- to bring those who were responsible to justice, International Commission for Missing Persons (ICMP) Director-General Kathryne Bomberger said on Tuesday.
TOMORROW I'll be in London attending a memorial for victims of the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia.
BRUSSELS, June 27 (KUNA) -- An appeals court in The Hague Tuesday upheld a lower court ruling from 2014 that the Dutch state is liable for the death of over 300 Muslim men who died in the massacre of Srebrenica in 1995.
THE terrible events of the Holocaust and the more recent Srebrenica massacre have together provided the building blocks for a unique centre to be housed in Huddersfield.
ATHENS Greece soccer officials have apologised to the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina after a fan's banner referred to the Srebrenica massacre at a World Cup qualifying match.