Sri Ksetra

Sri Ksetra


a state of the Pyu people of Burma that existed until the 830’s. Sri Ksetra, which is first mentioned in Chinese sources of the fourth century A.D., occupied most of the Irra-waddy River valley and in the south bordered the Mon cities; its first capital was the city of Tarekitara, or Sri Ksetra. The state reached its peak under the Vikrama dynasty, which ruled in the seventh and eighth centuries. Sri Ksetra maintained extensive commercial and cultural relations with India and China. The dominant religion was Buddhism.

In the eighth century, Sri Ksetra became a dependency of the state of Nan Chao, and its capital was moved north to the city of Khalin. In 832, according to the Chinese chronicles of the T’ang Dynasty, the troops of Nan Chao overran and leveled the Pyu capital; the surviving Pyu became slaves. The Pyu, a people of the Tibeto-Burmese group, subsequently were assimilated by the Burmese; they are last mentioned between the 11th and 13th centuries as one of the peoples inhabiting the Pagan state.

Sri Ksetra considerably influenced the development of later Burmese states (particularly the Pagan state), primarily in the area of Buddhist ideology and culture.


Mozheiko, I. V. 5,000 khramov na beregu Iravadi. Moscow, 1967.
Mozheiko. I. V., and A. N. Uzianov. Istoriia Birmy. Moscow, 1973.


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Janice Stargardt's article, 'From the Iron Age to early cities at Sri Ksetra and Beikthano, Myanmar', provides new archaeological evidence for transitions from prehistory in the late first millennium BCE to proto-urban and fully urban development at Sri Ksetra and Beikthano in the first millennium CE.
Stargardt outlines key developments at Sri Ksetra during the phase; Murphy argues for a proto-Dvaravati period in the fourth to fifth centuries; Higham documents social stratification in the Mun River Valley at this time; and both Higham and Heng argue that the pon of later Pre-Angkorian inscriptions descended from Late Iron Age elites.
This article discusses evidence on crucial transitions from the Late Iron Age to early urbanism at Sri Ksetra and Beikthano in Myanmar.
4) The oldest surviving examples of Pali in the world were inscribed on treasures on gold and silver in the Khin Ba relic chamber at Sri Ksetra.
The Pyu shared a form of urbanism on a range of scales--from vast walled spaces with one side enclosed by a water tank (as at Sri Ksetra and Beikthano), or a tank just outside the walls (as at Halin, Pinle and Wadi); a homogeneous form of irrigation technology integrated into these settlements with adaptations to suit each specific environment; a high-grade silver coinage with a srivatsa symbol on one side and either a rising sun or a bhadhrapitha symbol on the other.
By the time the first durable structures survived at Beikthano and Sri Ksetra (c.
Water control and early urbanism at Beikthano and Sri Ksetra
Sri Ksetra contained fields, irrigation canals, water tanks and iron-working sites, as well as monuments, markets (and elusive habitation areas (11)) both inside and outside the walls.
The integration of water control and urban development is conspicuous at Beikthano, Sri Ksetra, as well as at other Pyu sites that fall outside the scope of this article.
The environment around Sri Ksetra is saturated immediately after the rains (fig.
The massive southwestern and western walls of Sri Ksetra, built of fired brick with a brick-lined moat, initiated a second phase in water control.
24) I date Phase 2 of the wall and moat-building at Sri Ksetra to the period from c.

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