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an Indonesian state that arose circa the mid-seventh century in the region of what is now Palembang, on the island of Sumatra.

Srivijaya developed from a principality or principalities that had existed from at least the early third century; its emergence was facilitated by its favorable location on the trade route from India to Southeast Asia and by the fall of Funan. Between the second half of the seventh century and the ninth century, Srivijaya grew into a powerful maritime empire; it conquered the neighboring Sumatran states, western Java, western Kalimantan, and the Malay Peninsula. The empire reached its height in the second half of the ninth century and in the tenth century, during which period it was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty.

Srivijaya was probably an early feudal despotism with a highly developed system of vassal relationships. The principal source of revenue for its rulers was trade, based on the export of gold, tin, and products from the tropical rain forests; in addition, the maharajas received duties from the numerous foreign trading vessels and exploited the population through the levying of taxes and the exaction of tribute payments. Circa 922 a war began with Mataram for control of the peninsula. Circa 1016 the struggle ended in victory for Srivijaya, which was invaded, however, by the Indian state of Chola in 1025. Although its power was undermined by these conflicts, Srivijaya maintained control over the western regions of the archipelago for another two centuries. In the late 13th century, the Javans and Siamese redoubled their attacks on the empire. In the mid-14th century, Srivijaya became a tributary state of Majapahit, and it is last mentioned in 1376.

Srivijaya was a leading cultural center of Southeast Asia and an international center of Buddhism. The chief language was Old Malay; the official language was Sanskrit. In Indonesian history, Srivijaya is notable for being the first state to unite politically and culturally a significant area of the archipelago; it also established extensive ties with the states of Southeast Asia, India, China, and the Middle East.


Wolters, O. W. Early Indonesian Commerce: A Study of the Origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca, N.Y., 1967.
Coedès, G. Les Etats hinduisés d’Indochine et d’Indonésie. Paris, 1964.
Sastri, K. A. N. History of Sri Vijaya. Madras, 1949.


References in periodicals archive ?
The name Visayas was derived from the name of the seventh century Thalassocratic empire of Srivijaya in Sumatra.
Names like Funan, Chen-la and Angkor empires in modern Cambodia to the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires in the Malay Archipelago and even Siam.
However, much of this cultural adoption was done by dynastic leaders of Srivijaya and Majapahit in Sumatra and Java as 'means by which local leaders may claim special knowledge and thereby reaffirm their claim for authority'.
The Malaysians, Indonesians, Brunei, Philippines are all brothers and part of what we call the Srivijaya empire noong unang panahon.
Before the implementation of the "K-12" education system in the Philippines in 2012, the required textbook in public high schools since 1989, Kabihasnang Asyano, covered topics such as ancient civilizations, including Srivijaya, the Sailendra dynasty, Majapahit and the Khmer empire; contacts with Europeans, including the arrival of the Portuguese, Spaniards, Dutch, French and British; Western imperialism in the cases of the Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, British Malaya, British Burma and the buffer state of Thailand; the rise of nationalism in Indonesia, Indochina, Malaya and Burma; and the Second World War and the achievement of independence in the post-war period (Aguilar and Pante 2013, p.
For two thousand years, the Malay Peninsula had Elindu, Buddhist, and Islamic influences that spanned the vast Srivijaya, Chola, and Majapahit empires.
Part 2 examines specific manuscripts, from the Srivijaya Period (7th u 13th centuries) through the 21st century.
Local traditional histories of the main settlements along the Kapuas refer to early colonists from Java, or sometimes Srivijaya, and often at a place called Lawai Labai.
The chronology runs from prehistory, and the relationships with Srivijaya, imperial China and Malacca, de Vienne supports an early date for elite conversion to Islam (pp.
The Peninsula was linked culturally and politically to the southern kingdoms of Srivijaya and Java, but the naga-enthroned Buddha appears neither in Sumatra nor Java, which strengthens the argument for seeing the placing of the supreme Buddha on a naga throne as coming from Sri Lanka.
The reorganization of the Southeast Asian maritime networks and the emergence of Srivijaya thus occurred precisely during the later Sasanian period.
The Asean festival will also feature a set of Thai traditional dances which include Dance of the Four Regions, Srivijaya Dance, and Serng Kratip Dance.