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an Indonesian state that arose circa the mid-seventh century in the region of what is now Palembang, on the island of Sumatra.

Srivijaya developed from a principality or principalities that had existed from at least the early third century; its emergence was facilitated by its favorable location on the trade route from India to Southeast Asia and by the fall of Funan. Between the second half of the seventh century and the ninth century, Srivijaya grew into a powerful maritime empire; it conquered the neighboring Sumatran states, western Java, western Kalimantan, and the Malay Peninsula. The empire reached its height in the second half of the ninth century and in the tenth century, during which period it was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty.

Srivijaya was probably an early feudal despotism with a highly developed system of vassal relationships. The principal source of revenue for its rulers was trade, based on the export of gold, tin, and products from the tropical rain forests; in addition, the maharajas received duties from the numerous foreign trading vessels and exploited the population through the levying of taxes and the exaction of tribute payments. Circa 922 a war began with Mataram for control of the peninsula. Circa 1016 the struggle ended in victory for Srivijaya, which was invaded, however, by the Indian state of Chola in 1025. Although its power was undermined by these conflicts, Srivijaya maintained control over the western regions of the archipelago for another two centuries. In the late 13th century, the Javans and Siamese redoubled their attacks on the empire. In the mid-14th century, Srivijaya became a tributary state of Majapahit, and it is last mentioned in 1376.

Srivijaya was a leading cultural center of Southeast Asia and an international center of Buddhism. The chief language was Old Malay; the official language was Sanskrit. In Indonesian history, Srivijaya is notable for being the first state to unite politically and culturally a significant area of the archipelago; it also established extensive ties with the states of Southeast Asia, India, China, and the Middle East.


Wolters, O. W. Early Indonesian Commerce: A Study of the Origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca, N.Y., 1967.
Coedès, G. Les Etats hinduisés d’Indochine et d’Indonésie. Paris, 1964.
Sastri, K. A. N. History of Sri Vijaya. Madras, 1949.


References in periodicals archive ?
But following the execution, the narcotics bureau said that Srivijayan was "accorded full due process under the law, and he was represented by legal counsel throughout the process.
The gist of the statement goes this way: Islam came to Mindanao during the Srivijayan Empire.
They have been dated between the eight and tenth centuries, back to the time of the Srivijayan empire (Braddell 1949; Harrisson 1949; McKinnon 1994; Budi Utomo 2007:10-12).
The Indian, Khmer and Srivijayan kingdoms all benefited from the trade boom generated by the rise of the prosperous Song dynasty in China, which doubled its population and promoted maritime trade in spices, rice, forest products, luxury goods and textiles.
The human history of Singapore started in the 14th century with the probable rule of the Srivijayan Prince Parameswara.
But the text is vague at best as to where the Srivijayan state or empire was located or centred.
Dating back to 30,000 BC, Bisaya settlements were among the Philippine groups that absorbed a mixture of Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic syncretism because of its primordial rank in Maritime East Southeast Asia during the Srivijayan and Majapahit empires from the 12th to the 14th centuries.
Similarly, the distribution and language of the Srivijayan inscriptions in Kota Kapur (Bangka Island), Telaga Batu, Lampung and Pasemah, all dated to the end of the seventh century and highly similar in content, (13) reaffirm the sense that the projection of military power was limited to neighbouring polities that could be reached first and foremost by land, and subsequently subjugated through vows of loyalty and threats of potential misfortune as retribution for rejecting Srivijayan overlordship.
This history began at Santubong, near the mouth of the Sarawak River, which in Srivijayan times was a center of iron smelting and part of a great trading network that connected much of maritime Asia.
In the following decade, traders/envoys purporting to represent Srivijayan kings presented precious stones, bronze lamps and 'Chinese gold' to (Hindu?
Michael Flecker proposes that the ship was an Indonesian lashed-lug craft, possibly bound from the Srivijayan capital of Palembang to Java.
The 1156 Srivijayan trade mission, for example, was repaid at Guangzhou with an amount of coins equal to the value of the products it had presented to the Song court.