Ssu-ma Kuang(so͞o-mä kwäng), 1018–86, Chinese statesman and historian of the Northern Sung dynasty. He edited the monumental Tzu-chih t'ung-chien [the comprehensive mirror for aid in government], a chronicle of Chinese history from 403 B.C. to A.D. 959. The title indicates the belief that history can serve the present as a mirror of the past so that rulers can avoid the same mistakes. The 12th cent. philosopher Chu HsiChu Hsi
, 1130–1200, Chinese philosopher of Neo-Confucianism. While borrowing heavily from Buddhism, his new metaphysics reinvigorated Confucianism. According to Chu Hsi, the normative principle of human nature is pure and good.
..... Click the link for more information. abridged and reworked the materials. Ssu-ma Kuang was a member (with Ou-yang Hsiu and Su Tung-p'oSu Tung-p'o
, 1036–1101, Chinese poet. He was also called Su Shih. Born in present-day Sichuan prov., he was one of a literary family. Su occupied many official posts, rising to president of the board of rites (which regulated imperial ceremonies and worship).
..... Click the link for more information. ) of the conservative bureaucratic party that successfully opposed the reforms of Wang An-shihWang An-shih
, 1021–86, Chinese Sung dynasty statesman. As a chief councilor (1069–74, 1075–76) he directed sweeping administrative and fiscal reforms that drew strong conservative opposition.
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Born 1017 or 1019; died 1086. Chinese historian.
The son of a high-ranking functionary, Ssu-ma Kuang was a member of the Hanlin Academy and worked as a censor, historiographer, and governmental adviser. A conservative, he opposed the reforms of Wang An-shih. Ssu-ma Kuang’s major historical work was Tzu chih t’ung-chien (The Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government), which encompassed the period from 403 B.C. to A.D. 959; it was compiled in collaboration with Liu Pin, Liu Shu, and Fan Tsu-yu.