Ssu-ma Kuang

Ssu-ma Kuang

(so͞o-mä kwäng), 1018–86, Chinese statesman and historian of the Northern Sung dynasty. He edited the monumental Tzu-chih t'ung-chien [the comprehensive mirror for aid in government], a chronicle of Chinese history from 403 B.C. to A.D. 959. The title indicates the belief that history can serve the present as a mirror of the past so that rulers can avoid the same mistakes. The 12th cent. philosopher Chu HsiChu Hsi
, 1130–1200, Chinese philosopher of Neo-Confucianism. While borrowing heavily from Buddhism, his new metaphysics reinvigorated Confucianism. According to Chu Hsi, the normative principle of human nature is pure and good.
..... Click the link for more information.
 abridged and reworked the materials. Ssu-ma Kuang was a member (with Ou-yang Hsiu and Su Tung-p'oSu Tung-p'o
, 1036–1101, Chinese poet. He was also called Su Shih. Born in present-day Sichuan prov., he was one of a literary family. Su occupied many official posts, rising to president of the board of rites (which regulated imperial ceremonies and worship).
..... Click the link for more information.
) of the conservative bureaucratic party that successfully opposed the reforms of Wang An-shihWang An-shih
, 1021–86, Chinese Sung dynasty statesman. As a chief councilor (1069–74, 1075–76) he directed sweeping administrative and fiscal reforms that drew strong conservative opposition.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ssu-Ma Kuang


Born 1017 or 1019; died 1086. Chinese historian.

The son of a high-ranking functionary, Ssu-ma Kuang was a member of the Hanlin Academy and worked as a censor, historiographer, and governmental adviser. A conservative, he opposed the reforms of Wang An-shih. Ssu-ma Kuang’s major historical work was Tzu chih t’ung-chien (The Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government), which encompassed the period from 403 B.C. to A.D. 959; it was compiled in collaboration with Liu Pin, Liu Shu, and Fan Tsu-yu.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
Another article continuing in this vein is the important study on "Chinese Historical Criticism: Liu Chih-chi and Ssu-ma Kuang" (from the now classic symposium volume.
Bol, "Government, Society, and State: On the Political Visions of Ssu-ma Kuang and Wang An-shih," in Robert Hymes and Conrad Schirokauer, eds., Ordering the World: Approaches to State and Society in Sung Dynasty China, (Berkeley, 1993), pp.
Three years later another respected official, Ssu-ma Kuang (1019-1086), made the same appeal.
Ou-yang Hsiu in his writings frequently lamented the failures of former dynasties, while Ssu-ma Kuang's masterpiece, Tzu-chih t'ung-chien (General Mirror for the Aid of Government), is nothing if not didactic and cautionary.
(16) The earliest scholar to point out the impossibility of the Chi An-Kung-sun Hung episode seems to have been Ssu-ma Kuang [CHINESE TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1019-1086) in his Tzu-chih t'ung-chien k'ao-i; [CHINESE TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; see Yu Chia-hsi, "T'ai-shih kung shu wang-p'ien k'ao," 40.
(2 vols., Canberra, 1989) and Achilles Fang's classic work, The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms (220-265): Chapters 6978 from the Tzu chih t'ung chien of Ssu-ma Kuang (2 vols., Harvard, 1952), they fill the remaining gap of a continuous translation that spans more than a century of China's greatest chronicle history.
She draws on material from two texts by Ssu-ma Kuang (1019-86) and one by Yuan Ts'ai (ca.
Ssu-ma Kuang has another person retort, instead of Tung; see Achilles Fang, trans., The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms (220-265): Chapters 69-78 from the Tzu Chih T'ung Chien of Ssu-ma Kuang (1019-1086), 2 vols., Harvard-Yenching Inst.