Saint Lawrence Seaway

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Saint Lawrence Seaway,

international waterway, 2,342 mi (3,769 km) long, consisting of a system of canals, dams, and locks in the St. Lawrence River and connecting channels between the Great Lakes; opened 1959. It provides passage for oceangoing vessels into central North America. The seaway includes a 27-ft (8-m) deep waterway, a canal, and seven locks between the port of Montreal and Lake Ontario; a 27-ft (8-m) channel and eight locks through the Welland Ship CanalWelland Ship Canal,
27.6 mi (44.4 km) long, SE Ont., Canada, connecting Lake Ontario with Lake Erie and bypassing Niagara Falls. Built between 1914 and 1932 by Canada to replace a canal opened in 1829, it can accommodate (minimum depth 27 ft/8 m) the largest lake ships.
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; and the Sault Sainte Marie CanalsSault Sainte Marie Canals,
two ship canals bypassing the rapids on the St. Marys River between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, at the cities of Sault Ste Marie, Mich. and Ont. The Canadian canal (1.4 mi/2.3 km long and 60 ft/18 m wide), which has one lock, was opened in 1895.
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 and locks.

The seaway has created a fourth seacoast accessible to the industrial and agricultural heartland of North America and has brought oceangoing vessels to lake ports such as Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Duluth, and Toronto. The maximum vessel size is 730 ft (223 m) in length with a cargo capacity of 28,000 tons. The shipping season has been extended to 250 days (mid-April to mid-December) by increased use of icebreakers and air pumps to control ice formation in the locks. Iron ore, wheat, and coal are the principal cargoes carried on the seaway.

Construction of the project was authorized by Canada in 1951 and by the United States in 1954. The St. Lawrence Seaway Authority was charged with construction and maintenance of required facilities in Canada; the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation was responsible for facilities in the United States. Principal new locks on the St. Lawrence River section of the seaway are, from east to west, St. Lambert (18 ft/5.5 m lift); Côte Ste Catherine (30 ft/9.1 m), which enables vessels to bypass the Lachine Rapids; Lower and Upper Beauharnois (82 ft/25 m, including the Beauharnois Canal built in 1932); Bertrand H. Snell (45 ft/13.7 m); Dwight D. Eisenhower (38 ft/11.6 m); and Iroquois Guard Lock (3 ft/91 cm). Hydroelectric facilities were integrated with the project and developed and operated by the Power Authority of the State of New York and the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. One serious unexpected side effect of the seaway has been the introduction of invasive nonnative aquatic species, such as the zebra and quagga musselsmussel,
edible freshwater or marine bivalve mollusk. Mussels are able to move slowly by means of the muscular foot. They feed and breathe by filtering water through extensible tubes called siphons; a large mussel filters 10 gal (38 liters) of water per day.
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, into the Great Lakes and from there into other inland waterways.

Bibliography

See C. Mabee, The Seaway Story (1961), L. Thomas, Story of the St. Lawrence Seaway (1972), and G. Sussman, The St. Lawrence Seaway (1978).

Saint Lawrence Seaway

an inland waterway of North America, passing through the Great Lakes, the St Lawrence River, and connecting canals and locks: one of the most important waterways in the world. Length: 3993 km (2480 miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Further, Congress mandated the SLSDC collaborate with the SLSMC to "construct, operate and maintain that part of the St. Lawrence Seaway between the Port of Montreal and Lake Erie, within the territorial limits of the United States." (55) In accordance with this mandate, the SLSDC and SLSMC collaborated on the Seaway Regulations, which concerns vessel transit of the St.
With the minor exception of a few lock operators, prosperity didn't come to the St. Lawrence Seaway. The project literally became obsolete while being built, with tankers rapidly outgrowing facilities.
The New York Power Authority and Ontario Power Generation both have significant power plants on the St. Lawrence Seaway that rely on the flow of water through dams spanning the St.
The Detroit region serves as the busiest northern border crossing into Canada and sits along the St. Lawrence Seaway. The region is centrally located in one of the largest economic and trade corridors, moving more than $197 billion in 2008 through its borders.
The Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway extends 1,300 miles from Montreal to Duluth (SLSMC/SLSDC Web pages 2007; U.S.
Every year, the St. Lawrence Seaway welcomes hundreds of foreign freighters carrying steel to Great Lakes ports.
"Fifty years ago, Canada opened up Atlantic trade to North America with investments in the St. Lawrence Seaway. Today, we are beginning to see investments and even greater opportunity as we open up trade corridors linking the growing Asian economies with North America through Canada's Pacific Gateway," says British Columbia Premier Gordon Campbell.
He became President of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority, Chairman of the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission, and in the private sector he was a senior executive with Lavalin Inc., one of Canada's largest engineering firms.
Avid outdoorsman Andrew Keith presents Afloat Again, Adrift: Three Voyages on the Waters of North America, a travelogue of three of his canoeing trips: one down the Mississippi River; one through the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness to Hudson Bay; and one through the Great Lakes to the St. Lawrence Seaway. A reflection of solitude and the joy of experiencing the wilderness and the sight of animals ranging from common game to wolves and polar bears, Afloat Again, Adrift embraces the explorer's spirit.
28, 1975, Oceanus departed the shipyard at Peterson Builders Inc., in Sturgeon Bay, Wisc., to cruise through the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence Seaway, and the Gulf of Maine.
Ordinations of seven women to the diaconate or priesthood were to be held the day after the conference on a boat in the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Several small villages and hamlets, with such wonderful names as Moulinette, Dickinson's Landing, Maple Grove and Farran's Point, would be submerged and lost forever--collateral damage of the St. Lawrence Seaway project.