1645 today in the collection of the Jagdschloss Grunewald and made for Frederick Henry, the Prince of Orange and the Dutch stadholder
from 1625 to 1648.
The career of William Frederick provides a perfect basis for a study of relationships within the entire political and social hierarchy, and, in Janssen's hands, it becomes a very personal story, drawing heavily on the stadholder
's diary and correspondence.
This anti-Lusitanian stance marks a sharp contrast to the privileges formerly bestowed on Portugal, as well as the sense of optimism that once prevailed among Dutch traders, who supported the contender Dom Antonio for the throne, and hoped to find a special commercial relationship with Portugal, since Dom Antonio was the father-in-law of the Stadholder
, Prince Maurice of Orange.
James II fled, and the Dutch stadholder
, William of Orange, became king.
This theological dispute within the Calvinist Church and university faculties quickly took on political overtones, as the dominant Stadholder
from the House of Orange sided with the counter-Remonstrants, while the Advocate (or principal officer) of the States of Holland, Johan Oldenbarneveldt, along with his liberal followers, if not Remonstrants themselves, at least advo cated a tolerant attitude towards the Arminians.
His worn face is scarcely believable as that of a man hardly thirty-six years old, and at the height of his fame for his Passion Sequence, now in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, painted for the Prince of Orange, Stadholder
and grandfather of William III of England.
The only way in which he might reasonably have been associated with maritime issues was as Stadholder
of the United Provinces, England's main commercial rival, whose citizens were often bitterly satirized by Restoration pamphleteers.
Cornelis Jansz de Vlaminck, a former aldermen and patrician of Amsterdam, was aided by his friends who tried to convince the stadholder
, albeit unsuccessfully, that he was a respectable but deceived man.
The networks of ecclesiastical and political authorities were meanwhile being mobilized--also at the instigation of the stadholder
, William IV of Orange (1711-1751)--to take measures to suppress the movement.
When in 1629 Constantijn Huygens, secretary of the Stadholder
Frederik Hendrik and a champion of the arts, visited Rembrandt and Jan Lievens in their studio, he advised them to travel to Italy to complete their educations.
While Anne threatened to hold back the declaration of war against France, all of Marlborough's exertions on George's behalf could not sway the Dutch, "not only because they placed no confidence in the military talents of the Prince, but because they feared he would resist the control of the field deputies, whom they sent to the army." (115) George was reportedly incensed with Marlborough for his failure; Marlborough wrote to Lord Treasurer Sidney Godolphin in August 1702, inquiring whether "Prince George be capable of thinking soo ill of mee." (116) Anne also attempted to obtain William's office of Stadholder
for George in the Netherlands, a request to which a bewildered States-General made no reply.