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Stanford-Binet Testwidely used INTELLIGENCE TEST for children. The original Binet Test was designed by Binet and Simon (published 1905) to select those French children who would not benefit from the normal schooling available, but needed special education. Its revisions in 1908 and 1911 were designed as a series of tests relevant to each yearly age group, the average child of that age being able to ‘pass’. So in fact Binet defined what the average child of each age could do in terms of simple verbal and performance skills, i.e. standards or NORMS for each age were set (the concept of’mental age’ had appeared). The design was later adapted by Terman of Stanford University (US) to form the Stanford-Binet (1916), and it was Terman who introduced the concept of INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT. This transformed the test scores into a quotient, making it possible to compare children in different age bands, or the same child as he or she grew older.
The Stanford-Binet tests are individual, in that they have to be administered on a one-to-one basis. They are therefore essentially diagnostic and require skilled administration. There have been two further revisions (1937, 1960). Revisions are necessary as the tests become obsolete, e.g. a picture of a buttoned boot would need to be replaced by a picture of a sandal, or, today, a training shoe. A test loses its VALIDITY if the items are no longer relevant to normal experience. The extensive and prolonged use of the Stanford-Binet Test has made it particularly valuable since each use provides further data, thus aiding diagnosis. However, new tests have appeared in recent years, the British Intelligence Scale (1977) having been designed to provide a replacement test for use in British schools.