Stanislaus I,1677–1766, king of Poland (1704–1709, 1733–35) and duke of Lorraine (1735–66). He was born Stanislaus Leszczynski. Early in the Northern WarNorthern War,
1700–1721, general European conflict, fought in N and E Europe at the same time that the War of the Spanish Succession was fought in the west and the south.
..... Click the link for more information. (1700–1721), Charles XII of Sweden overran Poland and expelled King Augustus IIAugustus II,
1670–1733, king of Poland (1697–1733) and, as Frederick Augustus I, elector of Saxony (1694–1733). He commanded the imperial army against the Turks (1695–96), but had no success and was replaced by Prince Eugene of Savoy as soon as he
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1704, Charles secured the election of Leszczynski, a Polish nobleman. The majority of Poles remained loyal to Augustus, and Stanislaus, entirely dependent on Swedish arms, went into exile when Charles was routed (1709) at Poltava by Peter I of Russia. Stanislaus settled in France, emerging from oblivion when his daughter, Marie LeszczynskaMarie Leszczynska
, 1703–68, queen of France, wife of Louis XV, and daughter of Stanislaus I of Poland. Married in 1725, she bore 10 children and was the grandmother of Louis XVI. Of retiring disposition, she made no attempt to rival the king's mistresses.
..... Click the link for more information. , married (1725) Louis XV of France. On the death (1733) of Augustus II, Stanislaus returned to Poland and was again elected king. Under Russian pressure, a minority of the Polish diet chose instead Augustus IIIAugustus III,
1696–1763, king of Poland (1735–63) and, as Frederick Augustus II, elector of Saxony (1733–63); son of Augustus II, whom he succeeded in Saxony.
..... Click the link for more information. , precipitating the War of the Polish SuccessionPolish Succession, War of the,
1733–35. On the death (1733) of Augustus II of Poland, Stanislaus I sought to reascend the Polish throne. He was supported by his son-in-law, Louis XV of France.
..... Click the link for more information. . Stanislaus, besieged at Danzig, received only moral support from France, while his rival was backed by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and had full military aid from Russia. Stanislaus was obliged to flee from Danzig in 1734, and in 1735 he accepted the terms of the preliminary Treaty of Vienna. He kept the royal title but renounced his actual rights in favor of Augustus III. In exchange, he received Lorraine and Bar, with the provision that they were to pass directly to the French crown upon his death. The former duke of Lorraine (later Holy Roman Emperor Francis I) was compensated with the promise of Tuscany. Stanislaus, an enlightened, humane, and cultured man, held a small but distinguished court at Lunéville. He contributed to the embellishment of NancyNancy
, city (1990 pop. 102,410), capital of Meurthe-et-Moselle dept., NE France, on the Meurthe River and the Marne-Rhine Canal. It is the administrative, economic, and educational center of Lorraine.
..... Click the link for more information. , where the celebrated Place Stanislas still exhibits his generosity and good taste. Through his thought and writings he continued to influence Polish political ideas, and despite his concern with Polish affairs he ably administered Lorraine. He corresponded with the finest thinkers of his time, notably with Jean Jacques Rousseau, who on his request drafted a new constitution for Poland.