The pathological status of the stapes
was intraoperatively evaluated and classified into two statuses following the 2015 JOS staging system: S0 (no stapes
involvement) and S1 (superstructure surrounded by cholesteatoma and/or granulation) (Figure 3) .
Does the diameter of the stapes
prosthesis really matter?
Axial and coronal planes are necessary for identifying the position of the incus and its relationship with the malleus and stapes
(4,5) Several studies have shown added utility in the use of semi-automated histogram analysis of CT bone density datasets as well as specialized multiplanar reconstructions paralleling the stapes
crus for the detection of very early histopathological changes.
surgery started after John Shea performed his first surgery in 1958, which showed promising results.
In the present case, the presence of the soft tissue on the stapes
footplate initially gave the appearance of an otosclerotic plaque.
By placing a vibration source at the very basal end of the fluid channel, we simulated the stapes
driving the cochlea; by placing the source inside a more apical section on the BM, we simulated the backward wave case where the glass probe stimulates the BM directly.
The blood supply of the stapes
varies from the other two ossicles.
Prior to the experiments, the stapes
footplate responses to acoustic stimulation at the tympanic membrane (~94 dB SPL) were measured and compared to the modified ASTM F2504-05 range  introduced by Rosowski et al.
Finally, the effect of the coupling rod on the transducer's performance is signified by the change of the stapes
displacement expressed in decibels in the following equation:
Explorative tympanotomy performed because of the suspicion of stapes
fixation revealed that the stapes
were indeed fixed.
Stapedectomy is an operation in which the stapes
suprastructures and footplate are removed and replaced by prosthesis.