Star Chamber

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Star Chamber,

ancient meeting place of the king of England's councilors in the palace of Westminster in London, so called because of stars painted on the ceiling. The court of the Star Chamber developed from the judicial proceedings traditionally carried out by the king and his council, and was entirely separate from the common-law courts of the day. In the 15th cent., under the Lancastrian and Yorkist kings, the role of the council as an equity and prerogative court increased, and it extended its jurisdiction over criminal matters. Faster and less rigid than the common-law courts, its scope was extended by the Tudors. Under Chancellor Wolsey's leadership (1515–29), the Court of Star Chamber became a political weapon, bringing actions against opponents to the decrees and edicts of Henry VIII. Wolsey also encouraged petitioners to use the Court of the Star Chamber as a court of original jurisdiction, not as a last resort after the common-law courts had failed. Depositions were taken from witnesses, but no jury was employed in the proceedings. Although its sentences included a wide variety of corporal punishments, including whipping, pillorying, and branding, those convicted were never sentenced to death. The court remained active through the reigns of James I and Charles I. The traditional hostility between equity and common law was aggravated by the use made of the Star Chamber by the Stuarts as a vehicle for exercising the royal prerogative, particularly over church matters, in defiance of Parliament. It was abolished by the Long Parliament in 1641. In its later period the court was so reviled that Star Chamber became a byword for unfair judicial proceedings. The court's harshness, however, has been exaggerated.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Star Chamber


(formally, Court of Star Chamber; it received its name from the decorative stars on the ceiling of the hall of the royal palace in Westminster), a higher juridical institution of England from the 15th through the 17th century.

The Star Chamber was established in 1487 by Henry VII, primarily to combat revolts by feudal lords; later, during the reign of Elizabeth I Tudor and especially during the reigns of the first few Stuarts, the Star Chamber was transformed into a weapon for suppressing the enemies of the feudal-absolutist system and the Anglican Church. It was abolished during the English Revolution of the 17th century by the Long Parliament (1641).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(43) Evidence surrounding the debates suggests that Few's theory is correct; the Founders witnessed the Star Chamber's abuse of criminal defendants and intended to protect against it.
Seditious libel was a creation of the Star Chamber, the administrative tribunal established by the sixteenth-century Tudor monarchs whose members served at the monarch's pleasure.
He was stripped of his lieutenancy, and his Star Chamber victory against Sir William Fawnt was reversed by parliamentary vote.
Shakespeare would be particularly alert to the reach of the Privy Council and the Star Chamber. The two most eminent dramatists of his age, prior to his own ascendancy, were both affected catastrophically by their workings.
I'll bet that some heads will roll at BOLA when the witchfinder general opens the Star Chamber on Monday morning to find out why there weren't a couple of 14-race dug cards on standby.
In "Death of a Scapegoat," the author demonstrates that the Star Chamber was not nearly as bad as many of the other courts of is time.
Instead of being seen as fair and impartial, the courts are viewed as the equivalent of a Koestler nightmare at best, and a fifteenth century Star Chamber at worse.
In December 1607 Sir Thomas Beaumont of Stoughton in Leicestershire brought a suit in Star Chamber against a former servant, John Coleman, and a neighbouring gentleman, Sir Henry Hastings of Braunston.
A volume of his verses appeared in 1898, followed by Maximilian, a drama in blank verse (1902); The New Star Chamber and Other Essays (1904); Blood of the Prophets (1905); and a series of plays issued between 1907 (Althea ) and 1911 (The Bread of Idleness).
According to Manning, hunting litigation by the privileged during the reigns of James I and Charles I changed from preserving public order to enhancing royal prerogative in the Court of Star Chamber well before the revival of forest laws during Charles's Personal Rule.
To ensure the fitness of public officials, Hoover naturally used dragnet interviews, faceless accusers, and other Star Chamber methods.