State Libraries of the Union Republics
State Libraries of the Union Republics
national general-purpose public libraries; republic-level depositories for published works.
State libraries of the Union republics are scholarly institutions in the fields of library science, bibliography, and book history, as well as centers of methodological aid to public libraries of the Union republics of the USSR. The formation of a unified network of such libraries is one of the most important achievements of library work in the Soviet Union and one of the results of implementing the Leninist policy on nationalities.
Each state library of a Union republic receives a paid, mandatory copy of every domestic published work and a free, mandatory copy of every work published in its own republic. These libraries also participate in international book exchanges, which facilitate the active informational-bibliographical work of these libraries. They compile and issue retrospective and recommended indexes of national literature and publish informational bulletins and lists of new domestic and foreign publications received by their collections. All state libraries of Union republics maintain alphabetical and systematic catalogs in the national language of their republics, as well as in Russian, the languages of other peoples of the USSR, and foreign languages. Extensive work is conducted with library users—for example, book exhibits, bibliographical surveys, readers’ conferences, oral journals, and the like. These republic-level libraries study and generalize the work experience of the libraries in their republics.
In the Russian Federation organizational and methodological assistance to libraries is given by the V. 1. Lenin Library of the USSR in Moscow and the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Public Library in Leningrad.
REFERENCESChubar’ian, O. S. “Gosudarstvennye biblioteki soiuznykh respublik.” Biblioteki SSR, 1967, issue 36.
“Primernyi Ustav Gosudarstvennoi biblioteki soiuznoi respubliki.” Biblioteki SSSR, 1968, issue 38.
M. F. Akhundov State Library of the Azerbaijan SSR. Located in Baku, the library was founded on June 5, 1923. Since 1939 it has carried out the functions of a republic library. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections numbered more than 2.6 million items. The collections increase by 200,000 copies annually. Of special value are the collections of the national book room, which concentrates on printed publications in Azerbaijani. M. Fizuli’s Divan (Tebriz, 1849), M. F. Akhundov’s Temsilat (Tiflis, 1859), a set of the journal Molla Nasreddin (1906–30), and works are kept here. The library’s 11 specialized rooms serve 23,000 persons annually. The library has published the bibliographical index The 26 Baku Commissars (1968), among other works.
REFERENCEAzerbaidzhaskaia respublikanskaia biblioteka imeni M. F. Akhun-dova. Baku, 1962.
A. F. Miasnikian State Library of the Armenian SSR. Located in Yerevan, the library was opened on Nov. 7, 1922. The basis of its collections were the 18,000 books of the Yerevan Gymnasium. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the collections contained more than 6.4 million items. The collections increase by 350,000 copies annually. The library stores the book collections of the Party and state leader A. F. Miasnikian, the music scholar V. D. Korganian, the historian A. A. Manandian, and other notables. An extremely rich collection has been assembled of early and rare Armenian books dating from the 16th and 17th centuries; this collection contains the first Armenian printed book, which was published in Venice in 1512. The library serves 26,000 persons annually. It has published numerous basic works, including Bibliographical Index of Early Armenian Printed Books, 1512–1800 (1963), Armenian Books During 1801–1850 (1967), Armenian Printed Books in Constantinople, 1567–1850 (1964), and Bibliography of Armenian Bibliography (1963). Other publications include personal bibliographies devoted to S. Shaumian, A. Miasnikian, S. Spandarian, O. Tumanian, Kh. Abovian, A. Akopian, and E. Charents.
REFERENCERespublikanskaia biblioteka Armianskoi SSR im. A. Miasnikiana: Putevoditel’. Yerevan, 1968.
V. I. Lenin State Library of the Byelorussian SSR. Located in Minsk, the library was founded on Sept. 15, 1922. During the Great Patriotic War almost the entire collection of the library (more than 1.5 million items) was stolen or destroyed by the fascist German invaders. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections numbered more than 4.9 million items. The collections increase by 250,000 copies annually. An extremely valuable collection of regional studies and Byelorussian literature is concentrated in the library, including the printed books of F. Skorin, scholar-educator and founder of book printing in the Byelorussian language. The library’s 12 reading rooms serve 38,000 persons annually. Included in the library is the republic Book Chamber, which has published Letopis’ pechati BSSR since 1925. It has also published such major bibliographical works as Periodical Press of Byelorussia, 1817–1916 (1960), Periodical Press of the Byelorussian SSR, 1917–1958 (1960), Books of the Byelorussian SSR (published every five years), and Books by Marx, Engels, and Lenin Published in Byelorussia, 1917–1967 (1968), as well as biobibliographical indexes devoted to Ia. Kolas, P. Brovka, K. Krapiva, and other notables. The monthly information bulletin Novye knigi BSSR has been published since 1960.
REFERENCEGosudarstvennaia biblioteka BSSR im. V. I. Lenina: Putevoditel’. Minsk, 1969.
K. Marx State Library of the Georgian SSR. Located in Tbilisi, the library was opened on May 30, 1923. It was based on the book collections of the public library, which originated in 1846. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections exceeded 5 million items. The collections increase by 400,000 copies annually. The collection of Georgian books includes the unique collections of the historian P. Ioseliani, the writer I. Chavchavadze, and the publicist N. Nikoladze. Among the rare editions is the first printed Georgian book A Georgian-Italian Dictionary (Rome, 1629), A Georgian Grammar (Rome, 1670), and the first printed editions of the Georgian press, which was established in 1709. The most complete picture of Georgian literature is provided by the index Georgian Books (2 vols., 1941–54). The library has published Analytical Bibliography of Georgian Journals and Collections, 1852–1905 (3 vols., 1940–44) and personal indexes devoted to Sh. Rustaveli, Z. Paliashvili, and A. Tsereteli, among others. Its 11 reading rooms serve more than 28,000 people annually.
REFERENCEKavkasidze, A. Gosudarstvennaia respublikanskaia biblioteka Gruzinskoi SSR imeni K. Marksa: Kratkii spravochnik. Tbilisi, 1963.
A. S. Pushkin State Library of the Kazakh SSR. Located in Alma-Ata, the library was founded on Mar. 12, 1931. Its collections are based on the book collections of the district library. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library totalled more than 2.7 million items. Each year the collections are increased by more than 100,000 copies. The library has valuable works on the history of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan, including the works of A. I. Levshin, P. I. Rychkov, and L. Meier and the five-volume General History of the Huns, Turks, Mongols, and Other Western Tatars by the French orientalist de Guignes (1756–58). Among the national source materials, the manuscripts of the Kazakh educators A. Kunanbaev, Ch. Valikhanov, and I. Altynsarin are the rarest. Each year the library serves more than 26,000 people. It issues publications of state bibliography jointly with the Book Chamber of the Kazakh SSR. Also published are personal indexes devoted to M. Auezov and S. Seifullin. The library provides regular information on the work experiences of the republic’s libraries in the collections Biblioteki Kazakhstana (since 1959).
REFERENCEDauletova, N. K., and E. N. Shmeleva. “Bibliotechnoe stroitel’stvo v Sovetskom Kazakhstane.” Biblioteki SSSR, 1968, issue 37.
N. G. Chernyshevskii State Library of the Kirghiz SSR. Located in the city of Frunze, the library was opened on Aug. 1, 1934, as a central scholarly library; on Nov. 26,1938, it was reorganized as a republic library. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library numbered approximately 2.7 million items. Each year the collections increase by 150,000 copies. Of great value are works by the Russian travelers P. P. Semenov-Tian-Shanskii, N. A. Severtsov, and A. P. Fedchenko; the historian A. I. Levshin; and the archaeologist I. A. Chekaninskii. The library’s 12 specialized reading rooms serve 40,000 people annually. The Bibliography of Kirghizia (3 vols., 1963–66) was published in Kirghiz and Russian. The library has also published the quarterly information bulletin Bibliotekar’ Kirgizstana since 1965 and bulletins on new agricultural and technical literature.
REFERENCEKonduchalova, K. K. “Razvitie bibliotechnogo dela v Kirgizii za gody Sovetskoi vlasti.” Biblioteki SSSR, 1967, issue 35.
V. Lacis State Library of the Latvian SSR. Located in Riga, the library was founded on Apr. 3, 1919, by a decree of the Soviet government of Latvia. Based on collections from nationalized libraries, it acquired the status of a state Union-republic library in 1940. During the Great Patriotic War the invaders transported more than 100,000 books to Germany. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections numbered more than 3.6 million items. The collections increase annually by 200,000 copies. Extremely valuable collections of early printed Latvian, Russian, and foreign books are concentrated in the library, including the first printed texts in Latvian, the publications of Ivan Fedorov, and 55 incunabula. The library has manuscripts by Latvian writers, composers, and other cultural figures. The contents of this wealth of material are most completely presented in the guide Collection of Rare Books and Manuscripts (1958). The library’s 12 reading rooms serve up to 24,000 people a year.
The library has published the retrospective, systematic index of journal articles Latvian Science and Literature: 1763–1911, 1920–1942 (1926–40, 1963—) and the indexes to literature Latvian SSR; 1940–1960 (1961) and K. Marx, F. Engels, V. I. Lenin: A Bibliography (1969), among other works. The library has published the series Latvian Revolutionary Leaders annually since 1964; it also publishes current bibliographical information on sociopolitical problems, agriculture, and library science. It has published Trudy since 1964 and the information bulletin Novoe v bibliotechnom dele since 1961.
REFERENCEGosudarstvennaia biblioteka Latviiskoi SSR imeni V. Latsisa: Putevoditel’. Riga, 1966.
State Library of the Lithuanian SSR. Located in Vilnius, the library was created on Feb. 2, 1919, by a decree of the Soviet government of Lithuania. It was based on the municipal public library. During the years of the bourgeois republic the library was transferred to Kaunas. In 1940 it acquired the status of a state Union-republic library. In 1963 it was moved back to Vilnius, where a building was constructed for it. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections contained more than 4 million items. The annual addition to the collections has reached 150,000 copies. The library contains more than 105,000 publications devoted to Lithuanian studies, which is reflected in the chronicle Pechat’ Litovskoi SSR, published since 1957 jointly with the republic Book Chamber. Its 18 reading rooms serve 23,000 people. It has published the indexes Lenin and Lithuania (1969) and Nature of Soviet Lithuania and its Protection (1966), among others, and personal indexes devoted to K. Donelaitis, J. Janonis, E. Mieżelaitis and other notables. The library also publishes monthly illustrated bulletins in Lithuanian, Bibliotechnaia rabota (since 1949), as well as indexes of recent agricultural and technical literature.
REFERENCEGosudarstvennaia respublikanskaia biblioteka Litovskoi SSR. Vilnius, 1969. (In Lithuanian, Russian, English, French, and German.)
N. K. Krupskaia State Library of the Moldavian SSR. Located in Kishinev, the library was opened on Aug. 22, 1832, as a municipal public library; since 1944 it has carried out the functions of a state Union-republic library. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections contained more than 1.7 million items. The annual increase in the collections has reached 150,000 copies. The ten specialized reading rooms serve more than 21,000 persons annually. The library has published a section of the chronicle of the Moldavian SSR press entitled Sovetskaia Moldaviia i pechat’ SSSR since 1964. It has also published three volumes of the retrospective index Books Published in the MSSR, 1944–1957 (1955–58) and personal indexes devoted to P. Tkachenko and I. Iakir, among others. Bulletins on recent agricultural and technical literature are issued quarterly.
REFERENCEVolkovskaia, L. Gosudarstvennaia respublikanskaia biblioteka Moldavskoi SSR imeni N. K. Krupskoi. Kishinev, 1968.
Firdausi State Library of the Tadzhik SSR. Located in Dushanbe, the library was opened on Jan. 1, 1933, based on the municipal library founded in 1925. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collection numbered approximately 2 million items. Its collections increase by 100,000 copies annually. The book collections on the history of Middle Asia and rare books on oriental studies, especially those on Turkestan, are of great scholarly value. The library contains more than 7,000 oriental manuscripts of the 13th to 19th centuries, among them A History of Bukhara, The Medicinal Art of Akbar, and The Pharmacology of Kadyr. The library serves more than 20,000 people annually and has published the indexes Communist Party of Tadzhikistan (1962), Lenin’s Image in Literature (1965), Tadzhik Literature and Criticism (1967), Rudaki (1965), and Cities of Tadzhikistan (1967), among others. It has also published the collection Libraries of Tadzhikistan (From Work Experience) (1965).
REFERENCEPshenichnyi, B. Sokrovishchnitsa knig. Dushanbe, 1966.
K. Marx State Library of the Turkmen SSR. Located in Ashkhabad, the library was founded on May 5, 1895, as the Trans-Caspian Regional Library; it acquired state republic status in 1924. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections numbered more than 2.7 million items. The collections increase by more than 150,000 copies annually. Of special interest among the manuscripts preserved in the library is the collection of the works of 22 Turkmen poets of the 18th and 19th centuries, including the poets Makhtumkuli, Zelili, Talibi, and Seidi. The collection of regional studies literature includes such prerevolutionary and Soviet publications as Trans-Caspian Region by K. M. Fedorov, Turkestan Area by A. G. Serebrennikov, and Materials on the History of the Turkmens and Turkmenia. Each year the library serves more than 18,000 people. It has published the indexes The Turkmen SSR—Bright Beacon of Socialism and Communism in the East (1964), Cultural Construction and Public Health in the Turkmen SSR (1957–65), and Makhtumkuli (1959), among others. The library has also published manuals in the series Valuable Minerals in the Turkmen SSR (1958–66). The information bulletin Bibliotechnoe delo has been issued since 1968.
REFERENCE[Ulanovskaia, N. V., and K. Bel’tiukova.] Turkmenskaia gosudarstvennaia respublikanskaia biblioteka imeni K. Marksa: Putevoditel’. Ashkhabad, 1965.
A. Navoi State Library of the Uzbek SSR. Located in Tashkent, the library was founded in 1870 as the Turkestan Public Library. Beginning on Dec. 15, 1919, it was known as the National Library of the Turkestan ASSR, and in 1924 it acquired the status of a library of a Union republic. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections numbered approximately 3.7 million items. Its collections increase by 150,000 copies annually. Of special value in the collection of rare publications is The Turkestan Collection, a unique 591-volume collection of printed materials on Middle Asia and the countries adjacent to it, most of which was compiled by the prominent Russian bibliographer V. I. Mezhov; the library also contains books from the time of Peter the Great. Among the regional studies literature there is the first Russian translation of the Uzbek classical work Shedzhre-i-tiurk (1768). The library’s five specialized reading rooms serve as many as 30,000 people annually. It has printed the indexes Lenin in Uzbek Literature (1969), A. Navoi (1968), and others. The library has published the Letopis’ pechati Uzbekskoi SSR since 1968 jointly with the republic Book Chamber.
REFERENCE“Gosudarstvennaia biblioteka Uzbekskoi SSR imeni A. Navoi.” In Krupneishye biblioteki Uzbekistana: Spravochnik. Tashkent, 1964.
CPSU Order of the Red Banner of Labor State Library of the Ukrainian SSR. Located in Kiev, the library was founded in 1866 as a municipal public library. During the Great Patriotic War more than 300,000 books, 7,000 publications printed before the 18th century, and many unique collections (including a collection of prerevolutionary periodicals) were destroyed by the fascist German invaders. The library has carried out the functions of a state Union-republic library since 1957. In 1966 it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. As of Jan 1, 1970, the library’s collections totaled more than 2.2 million items. The annual increase in its collections exceeds 200,000 copies. This library has collected the works of such founders of Ukrainian literature as T. Shevchenko, I. Franko, Lesia Ukrainka, Panas Mirnyi, and M. Kotsiubinskii. Of great interest is Ukrainika, a card index of articles on the Ukraine in foreign periodical publications. Its five reading rooms serve more than 22,000 people annually. The library has published the quarterly bulletin Novye postupleniia v oblasti obshchestvennykh nauk (New Acquisitions in the Field of the Social Sciences) since 1968.
REFERENCEShazhko, I. V., and S. I. Mints. “Uspekhi bibliotechnogo stroi-tel’stva v Ukrainskoi SSR.” Biblioteki SSSR, 1967, vol. 34.
F. R. Kreutzwald State Library of the Estonian SSR. Located in Tallinn, the library was founded on Dec. 21, 1918; it was based on the library of the Estland Provincial Administration. It has carried out the functions of a state Union-republic library since 1940. As of Jan. 1, 1970, the library’s collections included approximately 2.5 million items. The annual increase in the collections has reached 100,000 copies. The library is used by 11,000 borrowers annually. It maintains an alphabetical catalog for the Estonika collection and many others. The library has published the collection Bibliotekovedenie Sovetskoi Estonii in Estonian since 1950 and the information bulletin Biblioteka since 1968. Indexes have been published on recent agricultural and technical literature. The library has also published such bibliographical works as Works by V. I. Lenin in Estonian (1969), E. Vilde (1965), and, A. H. Tammsaare (1967).
REFERENCELaus, A. 1. “Deiatel’nost’ bibliotek Sovetskoi Estonii.” BibliotekiSSSR, 1965, issue 29.
I. K. NAZMUTDINOV