# Statistical Calculation, Socioeconomic

## Statistical Calculation, Socioeconomic

Socioeconomic statistical calculations are calculations made on the basis of available statistical data to produce new indexes that provide increased possibilities for analyzing and learning about socioeconomic phenomena and processes. Such calculations can be divided into two groups: calculations of individual indexes and comprehensive calculations of systems of indexes.

The first group includes the following categories: (1) calculations of relative indexes, such as indexes of plan fulfillment, indexes of the structure of a population, indexes of the relations between individual parts of the population, indexes of dynamics, comparison indexes, and indexes of intensity of development; (2) calculations of average values, such as average wages, average output per employee, and average crop yield; (3) calculations of individual statistical quantities, such as mean sampling error, variance, and coefficients of variation; (4) calculations of statistical indexes; (5) calculations of unavailable indexes on the basis of balance equations and interpolation in time series; and (6) calculations of composite indexes in socioeconomic statistics—for example, aggregate social product and national income.

The second group consists of comprehensive statistical calculations that produce a representation of some process or state of a socioeconomic phenomenon. Such calculations make use of statistical grouping, the construction of index systems, the theory of correlation, and other statistical techniques of analysis.

Unsurpassed examples of statistical calculations on a high scientific level are found in the works of V. I. Lenin. In *The Development of Capitalism in Russia*, a massive amount of statistical material gathered by the *zemstvos* (local self-government bodies) was analyzed by Lenin, through the use of grouping, to demonstrate the development of capitalism in Russia. He found that a process of class differentiation took place in the postreform Russian countryside. Three different socioeconomic groups of peasants were evident: the proletarians and semiproletarians, who made their living primarily or partially from the sale of their labor; the middle peasants, whose means of livelihood was their own small farms; and the well-to-do peasants, who exploited hired workers. According to Lenin’s calculations, these three groups made up 50, 30, and 20 percent, respectively, of the peasantry in late 19th-century Russia. The same work provides a classic example of statistical calculations of the social structure of the population of Russia. The 1897 census of the population furnished the principal material here; the 1890 census in St. Petersburg and *zemstvo* statistical data were also made use of. Lenin established that the number of proletarians in Russia in 1897 was “not less than 22 million” (*Poln. sobr. soch*., 5th ed., vol. 3, p. 505, footnote).

Statistical calculations find many applications in the socialist economy. They are used in balance work (*see*BALANCE METHOD IN PLANNING and BALANCE METHOD IN STATISTICS), particularly in calculations associated with the drawing up of the balance of the national economy of the USSR, the balance of fixed capital stock, the financial balance, the balance of labor resources, and the in-tersector balance of production and distribution of social product. Statistical calculations are also used, for example, in comparing indexes between countries and in computing various composite indexes and coefficients. A large group of statistical calculations is associated with the prediction of population size and other socioeconomic indexes for long periods in the future. Another important group of statistical calculations consists of the calculations involved in extending the results of a sample survey to the general population and in estimating the reliability of the results. An example of statistical calculation is provided by the mathematical processing of the data of the intersector balance of the economy. Electronic computers and techniques of mathematical economics are used in carrying out comprehensive statistical calculations.

### REFERENCES

Eidel’man, M. R.*Mezhotraslevoi balans obshchestvennogo produkta*. Moscow, 1966.

*Kurs ekonomciheskoi statistiki*, 4th ed. Edited by A. I. Petrov. Moscow, 1967.

*Kurs demografii*. Edited by A. Ia. Boiarskii. Moscow, 1967.

Riauzov.N. N.

*Obshchaia teoriia statistiki*, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1971.

N. N. RIAUZOV