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Stavropol(stä`vrəpəl), city (1989 pop. 318,000), capital of Stavropol Territory, S European Russia, on the Stavropol Plateau. It has machine-tool, wool, leather, grain milling, and food-processing industries. There are natural-gas fields in the area. Founded in 1777 as a Russian fortress, it was an important base for the subsequent Russian conquest of the Caucasus. The was called Voroshilovsk between 1935 and 1943.
(from 1935 to 1943, Voroshilovsk), a city and administrative center of Stavropol’ Krai, RSFSR. A highway junction, the city is also linked by a 12-km branch line with the Kavkazskaia-Divnoe-Elista railroad line. The population in 1975 was 233,000 (as compared to 85,000 in 1939, 141,000 in 1959, and 198,000 in 1970). The city had three urban raions in 1977.
Stavropol’ was founded in 1777 as one of the forts along the Azov-Mozdok line of fortifications established to protect the southern borders of the Russian Empire. In 1785 it became a district capital in the Caucasus Guberniia (Province). The city was designated the administrative center of the Caucasus Oblast in 1822 and of the Stavropol’ Guberniia in 1847. The main postal route linking the Caucasus with the central parts of European Russia passed through Stavropol’, and the staff headquarters of the commander of the Caucasian Line and Black Sea Region were located there. The city was linked by a branch line to the Vladikavkaz Railroad in 1897.
Soviet power was established in Stavropol’ on Jan. 1 (14), 1918. Captured by White Guards in July 1918, the city was liberated by the Red Army on Feb. 29,1920. From 1937 to 1943 it was the administrative center of Ordzhonikidze Krai. During this period it was occupied by fascist German invaders from Aug. 3, 1942, to Jan. 21,1943.
During the years of socialist construction, Stavropol’ has become a major industrial, administrative, and cultural center. The city’s machine-building and chemical plants produce machine tools, trailers, various tools, piston rings, automatic electrical equipment (Elektroavtomatika Plant), industrial carbon, chemical reagents, and phosphors. The food-processing industry is represented by a meat combine, a flour-milling plant, a confectionery, a malt enterprise, a winery, a brewery, and a dairy. The city’s light industry manufactures leather goods, footwear, and clothing. There are also furniture and building-materials enterprises and a printing plant.
The city’s educational institutions include polytechnical, agricultural, medical, and pedagogical institutes; a branch of the Moscow Cooperative Institute; a communications technicum; building, technological, and cooperative technicums; and uchilishcha of music, medicine, pedagogy, cultural education, and art. A number of research institutions are based in the city: the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Phosphors and Super-pure substances, the Northern Caucasus Scientific Research Institute of Natural Gas, the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Sheep Raising and Goat Raising, the Antiplague Scientific Research Institute of the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, and research institutes of agriculture, of vaccines and serums, and of hydroengineering and reclamation. The city also has a museum of local lore, a museum of fine arts, the M. Iu. Lermontov Drama Theater, and a puppet theater.
REFERENCESValiarovskii, K. I. Stavropol’ vchera, segodnia, zavtra. Stavropol’, 1967.
Krasnov, G. D. Stavropol’ na Kavkaze, 2nd ed. Stavropol’, 1957.
Pamiatnikiistoriii kul’tury Stavropol’ia. Stavropol’, 1971.
until 1964, the name of the city of Tol’iatti in Kuibyshev Oblast, RSFSR.